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The '''Dothraki language''', is the language of the [[Dothraki]], the indigenous nomadic horse people that roam the [[Dothraki Sea]]. It is known to be a gutteral, violent tongue.
+
The '''Dothraki language''', is the language of the [[Dothraki]], the indigenous nomadic horse people that roam the [[Dothraki Sea]]. It is known to be a rough, harsh language.{{Ref|AGOT|3}}{{Ref|AGOT|11}}{{Ref|AGOT|61}}
  
==In the Books==
+
==Language==
Interesting to note that:
+
Dothraki is the language spoken by the [[Dothraki]], the indigenous nomadic horse people. Only few terms and translations are known from this language, as [[George R.R. Martin]] has not developed the actual language. On the developing of languages for [[A Song of Ice and Fire]], the author stated:
* The name for the Dothraki people and their language derives from the verb "dothralat" ("to ride"), mirroring the importance of horses in the [[Dothraki]] culture.
 
* The Dothraki have four different words for "carry," three for "push," three for "pull" and at least eight for "horse," but no word that means "please" or "follow."
 
* The longest word in Dothraki is "athastokhdeveshizaroon," which means "from nonsense."
 
* The words for "related," "weighted net," "eclipse," "dispute," "redhead," "oath," "funeral pyre," "evidence," "omen," "fang" and "harvest moon" all have one element in common: "qoy," the Dothraki word for "blood."
 
* Dothraki for "to dream" – "thirat atthiraride" – literally means "to live a wooden life"; in Dothraki, "wooden" ("ido") is synonymous with "fake."
 
* The word for "pride" – "athjahakar" – is derived from "jahak," the traditional long braid worn by Dothraki warriors ("lajaki").
 
  
* the Dothraki use "it is known" concerning a piece of common knowledge or folklore.
+
{{Quote|"I don't have a whole imaginary language in my desk here, the way Tolkien did."<br><br>
* "my Sun and Stars", is used when referring to a husband.
+
Tolkien was a philologist, and an Oxford don, and could spend decades laboriously inventing Elvish in all its detail. I, alas, am only a hardworking SF and fantasy novel, and I don't have his gift for languages. That is to say, I have not actually created a Valyrian language. The best I could do was try to sketch in each of the chief tongues of my imaginary world in broad strokes, and give them each their characteristic sounds and spellings.<ref>[[So Spake Martin]]: [http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/Entry/1250/ Yet More Questions (July 22, 2001)]</ref>
 +
|[[George R. R. Martin]]}}
  
==Notable words and phrases ==
+
HBO's TV series ''[[Game of Thrones]]'', on the other hand, has developed an actual spoken Dothraki language. This language takes cues from the known Dothraki words used in the published material, and expands greatly upon it.
* "Shierak qiya" means bleeding star (comet). The Dothraki see such signs like the [[Red Comet]] as ill omens.
 
  
==Creation==
+
==Known terms and titles==
The language was fully developed by [[w:David J. Peterson|David J. Peterson]], a member of the [[w:Language Creation Society|Language Creation Society]], for [[w:HBO|HBO]]'s television series [[Game of Thrones]]. over 1700 words, Peterson drew inspiration from George R.R. Martin’s description of the language, as well as from such languages as [[w:Russian language|Russian]], [[w:Turkish language|Turkish]], [[w:Estonian language|Estonian]], [[w:Inuktitut|Inuktitut]] and [[w:Swahili language|Swahili]].<ref name=hbo>{{cite web |url=http://dothraki.conlang.org/official-hbo-press-release/ |title=Official HBO Press Release |date=April 12, 2010}}</ref>
+
A ''[[khal]]'' is the leader of a ''[[khalasar]]'', a nomadic horde of Dothraki. A ''Khal'''s wife is called a ''[[khaleesi]]'', and his heir is known as a ''[[khalakka]]''.{{Ref|aGoT|36}} A ''khal'' has his trusted companions and guards, his [[bloodrider]]s, known as the ''[[ko]]''<nowiki>'</nowiki>s. Thus, the ''khal'' is protected by his captains, called ''[[ko]]s'', whereas the ''khaleesi'' is protected by her own guards, her ''[[khas]]''.{{Ref|AGOT|61}}{{Ref|AGOT|23}}{{Ref|AGOT|36}}{{Ref|AGOT|54}} A ''ko'' can have a ''khas'' serve under him.{{ref|agot|61}}
  
The Dothraki language was developed under two significant constraints.  First, the language had to match the uses already put down in the books. Secondly, it had to be easily pronounceable or learnable by the actors. These two constraints influenced the grammar and phonology of the language: for instance, voiceless stops can be aspirated or unaspirated, as in English.
+
When a ''khal'' dies, his ''khaleesi'' joins the ''[[dosh khaleen]]'' in the only true city the Dothraki have, [[Vaes Dothrak]].{{Ref|AGOT|36}}
  
==Language Specifics==
+
Dothraki use the terms "it is known" frequently.{{Ref|AGOT|61}}{{Ref|AGOT|23}}{{ref|ACOK|12}}{{Ref|ACOK|40}}{{ref|ASOS|57}}{{Ref|ADWD|2}}{{Ref|ADWD|16}}{{Ref|ADWD|36}}{{Ref|ADWD|52}} Bloodriders are referred to as “blood of my blood”.{{Ref|AGOT|11}}{{Ref|AGOT|36}} [[Daenerys Targaryen]] and Khal [[Drogo]] refer to each other as "my sun-and-stars" and "moon of my life".{{Ref|AGOT|61}}{{Ref|AGOT|36}}{{Ref|AGOT|54}}{{Ref|AGOT|46}}{{Ref|AGOT|64}}{{Ref|AGOT|68}}{{Ref|AGOT|72}} It is unknown whether these expressions are commonly used amongst the Dothraki.
===Phonology and romanization===
 
In Dothraki the consonants '''d''', '''t''', '''s''', '''n''' are dental, which sets it apart from many languages. David Peterson has said that "You know, most people probably don’t really know what Arabic actually sounds like, so to an untrained ear, it might sound like Arabic. To someone who knows Arabic, it doesn’t. I tend to think of the sound as a mix between Arabic (minus the distinctive pharyngeals) and Spanish, due to the dental consonants." <ref name=tor>{{cite web |url=http://www.tor.com/blogs/2010/04/creating-dothraki-an-interview-with-david-j-peterson-and-sai-emrys |title= Creating Dothraki - An Interview with David J Peterson and Sai Emrys |date = April 22, 2010}}</ref>. Regarding the orthography, the Dothraki themselves don't have a writing system&mdash;nor do many of the surrounding peoples (e.g. the [[Lhazareen]]). If there were to be any written examples of Dothraki in the [[A Song of Ice and Fire]] universe, it would be in a writing system developed in the [[Free Cities]] and adapted to Dothraki, or in some place like [[Ghis]] or [[Qarth]], which do have writing systems.<ref name="wes.ru">{{cite web |url=http://westeros.ru/?p=3779 |title=Westeros.Ru interview |date=June 24, 2010}}</ref> 
 
  
==== Consonants ====  
+
==Known translations==
There are twenty-three consonant phonemes in the Dothraki language. Here the Anglicised form is given on the left, and the IPA in brackets. 
+
Several names of cities, lands and others are described in the published material:
{| class="wikitable"
+
 
|-
+
{|class="wikitable sortable" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0"  width="98%" style="margin: 0 0 1em 1em; border: 1px solid #999; border-right-width: 2px; border-bottom-width: 2px"
!
+
!Dothraki
! [[w:Labial consonant|Labial]]  
+
!Translation
! [[w:Dental consonant|Dental]]
+
!Notes
! [[w:Alveolar consonant|Alveolar]]
+
|-
! [[w:Postalveolar consonant|Postalveolar]]
+
|[[Adakhakileki]]{{Ref|AWOIAF|Adakhakileki}}
! [[w:Velar consonant|Velar]]
+
|The Cannibals
! [[w:Uvular consonant|Uvular]]
+
|A ruined city with unknown origins
! [[w:Glottal consonant|Glottal]]  
+
|-
|-  
+
|Haesh Rakhi{{Ref|AGOT|61}}
! [[w:Plosive|Language Creation Society]]
+
|Lamb Men
|
+
|The Dothraki name for the [[Lhazareen]]
| t [t̪]
+
|-
|  
+
|Jaqqa rhan{{Ref|AGOT|61}}
|
+
|
| k [k]
+
|Described as the ''mercy men''. Exact translations currently unknown.
| q [q]
+
|-
|  
+
|Khalakka dothrae{{Ref|AGOT|46}}
|-  
+
|The prince is riding
! [[w:Voiced plosive|Voiced plosive]]  
+
|
|
+
|-
| d []  
+
|Khalakka dothrae mranha{{Ref|AGOT|46}}
|
+
|A prince tides inside me
|
+
|
| g [g]  
+
|-
|  
+
|[[Krazaaj Has]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Krazaaj Has}}
|  
+
|Sharp Mountains
|-  
+
|A [[Ghiscari]] city, currently in ruins; the Dothraki name refers to the pyramids that once stood in the city
! [[w:Affricate|Affricate]]
+
|-
|  
+
|[[Krazaaj Zasqa]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Krazaaj Zasqa}}{{ref|twoiaf| The Bones and Beyond}}{{ref|twoiaf| Beyond the Free Cities: East of Ib}}
|
+
|White Mountains
|  
+
|The Dothraki name for the northern portion of the great mountain chain that divides Essos, more commonly known as the ''Bones''
| ch [tʃ]
+
|-
|  
+
|Khal Rhae Mhar{{Ref|AGOT|36}}
|  
+
|The Sorefoot King
|  
+
|
 +
|-
 +
|Khal Rhaggat{{Ref|AGOT|36}}
 +
|The Cart King
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
! [[w:Voiced affricate|Voiced affricate]]
+
|Rakh{{Ref|AGOT|46}}
|
+
|A boy
|
+
|
|  
+
|-
| j [dʒ]
+
|Rakh haj{{Ref|AGOT|46}}
|  
+
|A strong boy
|  
+
|
|  
+
|-
|-
+
|Rhaesh Andahli{{Ref|AGOT|3}}{{ref|twoiaf| Ancient History: The Arrival of the Andals}}
! [[w:Voiceless fricative|Voiceless fricative]]  
+
|The land of the Andals
| f [f]
+
|The Dothraki name for [[Westeros]]
| th [θ]
+
|-
| s [s]
+
|Shierak qiya{{Ref|ACOK|12}}
| sh [ʃ]
+
|Bleeding star
| kh [x]  
+
|
|  
+
|-
| h [h]  
+
|[[Vaes Aresak]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Vaes Aresak (Ibbish)}}{{ref|twoiaf| Beyond the Free Cities: Ib}}
|-  
+
|City of Cowards
! [[w:Voiced fricative|Voiced fricative]]  
+
|An [[Ib]]benese town, currently abandoned, originally called ''Ibbish''
| v [v]  
+
|-
|  
+
|[[Vaes Athjikhari]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Vaes Athjikhari (Sallosh)}}
| z [z]  
+
|City of Sickness
| zh [ʒ]
+
|A [[Sarnor]]i city, currently in ruins, originally called ''Sallosh'', which had also been known as ''the City of Scholars''
|  
+
|-
|  
+
|[[Vaes Diaf]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Vaes Diaf (Hazdahn Mo)}}
|  
+
|City of the Skull
|-  
+
|A [[Ghiscar]]i city, currently in ruins, originally called ''Hazdahn Mo''
! [[w:Nasal consonant|Nasal]]  
+
|-
| m [m]
+
|[[Vaes Efe]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Vaes Efe}}
| n []  
+
|City of Shackles
|  
+
|A small [[Ghiscar]]i town, currently in ruins
|
+
|-
|  
+
|[[Vaes Graddakh]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Vaes Graddakh (Sarys)}}
|  
+
|City of Filth
|  
+
|A [[Sarnor]]i city, currently in ruins, originally called ''Sarys''
|-
+
|-
! [[w:Lateral consonant|Lateral]]  
+
|[[Vaes Jini]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Vaes Jini (Yinishar)}}
|
+
|City of Goats
| l []  
+
|Originally a city called ''Yinishar'', currently in ruins
|  
+
|-
|  
+
|[[Vaes Gorqoyi]]{{Ref|TWOIAF| Beyond the Free Cities: The Grasslands}}
|  
+
|City of the Blood Charge
|  
+
|Originally a city called ''Mardosh'', which had also been known as the ''City of Soldiers''
|  
+
|-
|-
+
|[[Vaes Khadokh]]{{ref|twoiaf| Beyond the Free Cities: The Grasslands}}{{Ref|AWOIAF| Vaes Khadokh (Essaria)}}
! [[w:Trill consonant|Trill]]
+
|City of Corpses
|  
+
|Originally a [[Valyria]]n colony called ''Essaria'', currently in ruins
|  
+
|-
| r [r]  
+
|[[Vaes Khewo]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Vaes Khewo (Sarnath)}}
|  
+
|City of Worms
|  
+
|A [[Sarnor]]i city, currently in ruins, originally called ''Sarnath''
|  
+
|-
|  
+
|[[Vaes Leisi]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Vaes Leisi}}
|-  
+
|City of Ghosts
! [[w:Tap consonant|Tap]]  
+
|A formed settlement of the “wood walkers” from the [[Kingdom of the Ifequevron]], currently in ruins
|  
+
|-
|  
+
|[[Vaes Leqse]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Vaes Leqse (Gornath)}}
| r [ɾ]  
+
|City of Rats
|  
+
|A [[Sarnor]]i city, currently in ruins, originally called ''Gornath''
|  
+
|-
|  
+
|[[Vaes Mejhah]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Vaes Mejhah}}
|  
+
|City of Whores
|-  
+
|A small [[Ghiscari]] town, currently in ruins
! [[w:Glide (linguistics)|Glide]]  
+
|-
| w [w]  
+
|[[Vaes Orvik]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Vaes Orvik}}
|  
+
|City of the Whip
|  
+
|A small [[Qarth]]een city, currently in ruins; the Dothraki name refers to the great number of slaves taken when the city was destroyed.
| y [j]  
+
|-
|
+
|[[Vaes Qosar]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Vaes Qosar (Qolahn)}}
|  
+
|City of Spiders
|  
+
|A [[Qarth]]een city, currently in ruins, originally called ''Qolahn''
|}
 
 
 
The digraphs '''kh''', '''sh''', '''th''' and '''zh''' are all fricatives, while '''ch''' and '''j''' are affricates.  The letters '''c''' and '''x''' never appear in Dothraki, although '''c''' appears in the digraph '''ch''', pronounced like 'check'. '''b''' and '''p''' seem to appear only in names, as in '''Bharbo''' and '''Pono'''.  Voiceless stops may be aspirated. This does not change word meaning.
 
 
 
==== Vowels ====
 
Dothraki has a four vowel system shown below:
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
 
|-
 
|-
! Vowels
+
|[[Vaes Shirosi]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Vaes Shirosi}}
! Diphthongs
+
|City of Scorpions
 +
|A small [[Qarth]]een city, currently in ruins
 
|-
 
|-
| '''i''' [i]
+
|[[Vaes Tolorro]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Vaes Tolorro}}
| '''iy''' [ij]
+
|City of Bones
 +
|An abandoned city of unknown origin
 
|-
 
|-
| '''e''' [e]
+
|[[Vojjor Samvi]]{{Ref|AWOIAF| Vojjor Samvi (Kasath)}}
| '''ey''' [ej]
+
|The Broken Gods
 +
|A [[Sarnor]]i city originally called ''Kasath'', which had also been known as the ''City of Caravans'', currently in ruins
 
|-
 
|-
| '''o''' [o]
+
|Yalli Qamayi{{Ref|AWOIAF| Yalli Qamayi (Sathar)}}
| '''oy''' [oj]
+
|Wailing Children
 +
|A [[Sarnor]]i city originally called ''Sathar'', which had also been known as the ''Waterfall City'', currently in ruins
 
|-
 
|-
| '''a''' [a]
 
| '''ay''' [aj]
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
In the [[A Song of Ice and Fire]] books, '''u''' never occurs as a vowel, appearing only after "q", and only in names, as in '''Jhiqui''' and '''Quaro'''.
+
==HBO’s [[Game of Thrones]] ==
 
+
The Dothraki language was as used in the TV series has fully been developed by [[w:David J. Peterson|David J. Peterson]], a member of the [[w:Language Creation Society|Language Creation Society]], for [[w:HBO|HBO]]'s [[Game of Thrones]]. Inspiration was drawn from George R.R. Martin's description of the language, as well as from several real-life languages such as [[w:Russian language|Russian]], [[w:Turkish language|Turkish]], [[w:Estonian language|Estonian]], [[w:Inuktitut|Inuktitut]] and [[w:Swahili language|Swahili]].<ref name=hbo>[http://dothraki.conlang.org/official-hbo-press-release/ Official HBO Press Release (April 12, 2010)]</ref>
In sequence of multiple vowels, each such vowel represents a separate syllable.  Examples: '''shierak''' [ʃi.e.'ɾak] ''star'', '''rhaesh''' [ɾha.'eʃ] ''country'', '''khaleesi''' ['xa.l̪e.e.si] ''queen''.
 
 
 
=== Phonotactics ===
 
==== Geminates ====
 
Following certain prefixes, initial consonants become geminates. Furthermore, initial consonant clusters become reduced in the romanization, such that '''a-th-th''' becomes '''atth''', and not '''athth'''. We have examples for '''n''', '''d''', '''s''', '''th''', '''r''', '''j'''. We also have mid-word geminates for '''k''', '''g''', '''v''', '''q''' and '''r'''. 
 
 
 
==== Vowel clusters ====
 
Dothraki appears to allow unlimited sequences of vowels in a word. Each such vowel represents a separate syllable.  Examples: ''shierak'' star, and ''rhaesh'' country.  Furthermore, Dothraki allows for two of the same vowel to occur near each other, as in ''khaleesi''.
 
 
===Grammar===
 
====Word Order====
 
In a basic sentence, the order of these elements (when all three are present) is as in English: First comes the Subject (S), then comes the Verb (V), then comes the Object (O). Here's an example:
 
:'''Khal ahhas arakh.'''
 
:''The Khal (S) sharpened (V) the arakh (O).'' 
 
When only a subject is a present, the subject precedes the verb, as it does in English:
 
:'''Arakh hasa.'''
 
:''The arakh (S) is sharp (V).''  In more complicated phrases, there is a specific order as well. The order is (maximally) as follows: demonstrative, noun, adverb, adjective, genitive noun, prepositional phrase. Prepositions always precede their noun complements. 
 
:'''jin ave sekke verven anni m'orvikoon'''
 
:this father very violent of.mine with.a.whip
 
:''this very violent father of mine with a whip''  Adverbs normally are sentence final, but they can also immediately follow the verb. Modal particles precede the verb.<ref name="dothraki101">{{cite web |url=http://www.makinggameofthrones.com/production-diary/2010/12/15/dothraki-101.html |title=Dothraki 101 post on HBO's Making Game of Throne's blog |date=December 15, 2010}}</ref>
 
 
 
====Case====
 
It is known to have at least four noun cases - nominative, accusative, genitive, and ablative.<ref name="hbo"/><ref name=SciAm>{{cite web |url=http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=dothraki-response-2010-06-02 |title=The Dothraki response to a call for science in a created language |date=June 3, 2010}}</ref> It also may have the allative case, and probably lacks the dative. <ref name="wes.ru">{{cite web |url=http://westeros.ru/?p=3779 |title=Westeros.ru |date=June 24, 2010}}</ref>
 
  
===Lexicon===
+
The Dothraki language was developed under two restrictions. The language needed to match the terms used in the books, as well, it needed to be easy to pronounce or learn by the actors. These two constraints were an influence on the grammar and phonology of the Dothraki language developed for HBO.
Peterson had created around two thousand words for Dothraki at the point of the shooting of the second episode. The publicly available lexicon, including the odd inflectional form, has been [http://docs.dothraki.org/Dothraki.pdf posted online].  A few sample words are:<ref name=PRA>{{cite web |url=http://dothraki.conlang.org/press-release-audio/ |title= Press Release Audio |date=April 13, 2010}}</ref>
 
  
==References and Notes==
+
As of September 2011, the languages comprised 3163 words, though not all of these words are publicly known.<ref>[http://www.dothraki.com/2011/09/the-header-script/ The Header Script (September 21, 2011)]</ref>
{{References|2}}
 
{{EnWP|Dothraki language|small=yes}}
 
  
==External links==  
+
==See also==
 +
See also the following external links
 
* [http://dothraki.conlang.org The LCS blog about the language]  
 
* [http://dothraki.conlang.org The LCS blog about the language]  
 
* [http://wiki.dothraki.org The Dothraki Language Wiki]
 
* [http://wiki.dothraki.org The Dothraki Language Wiki]
 +
* [http://docs.dothraki.org/Dothraki.pdf Publicly available lexicon]
 +
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dothraki_language English Wikipedia page on the Dothraki language]
 +
 +
==References==
 +
{{References}}
  
 
{{Languages}}
 
{{Languages}}
  
[[Category:Game of Thrones (TV series)]][[Category:Languages]]
+
[[Category:Dothraki]]
 +
[[Category:Game of Thrones (TV series)]]
 +
[[Category:Languages]]
 
[[Category:Dothraki culture|Language]]
 
[[Category:Dothraki culture|Language]]
[[ru:Дотракийский_язык]][[fr:Dothraki (langue)]]&#1044;&#1086;&#1090;&#1088;&#1072;&#1082;&#1080;&#1081;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080;&#1081; &#1103;&#1079;&#1099;&#1082;]]
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[[ru:Дотракийский_язык]]
 +
[[fr:Dothraki (langue)]]

Latest revision as of 13:43, 5 June 2019

The Dothraki language, is the language of the Dothraki, the indigenous nomadic horse people that roam the Dothraki Sea. It is known to be a rough, harsh language.[1][2][3]

Language

Dothraki is the language spoken by the Dothraki, the indigenous nomadic horse people. Only few terms and translations are known from this language, as George R.R. Martin has not developed the actual language. On the developing of languages for A Song of Ice and Fire, the author stated:

"I don't have a whole imaginary language in my desk here, the way Tolkien did."

Tolkien was a philologist, and an Oxford don, and could spend decades laboriously inventing Elvish in all its detail. I, alas, am only a hardworking SF and fantasy novel, and I don't have his gift for languages. That is to say, I have not actually created a Valyrian language. The best I could do was try to sketch in each of the chief tongues of my imaginary world in broad strokes, and give them each their characteristic sounds and spellings.[4]

HBO's TV series Game of Thrones, on the other hand, has developed an actual spoken Dothraki language. This language takes cues from the known Dothraki words used in the published material, and expands greatly upon it.

Known terms and titles

A khal is the leader of a khalasar, a nomadic horde of Dothraki. A Khal's wife is called a khaleesi, and his heir is known as a khalakka.[5] A khal has his trusted companions and guards, his bloodriders, known as the ko's. Thus, the khal is protected by his captains, called kos, whereas the khaleesi is protected by her own guards, her khas.[3][6][5][7] A ko can have a khas serve under him.[3]

When a khal dies, his khaleesi joins the dosh khaleen in the only true city the Dothraki have, Vaes Dothrak.[5]

Dothraki use the terms "it is known" frequently.[3][6][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] Bloodriders are referred to as “blood of my blood”.[2][5] Daenerys Targaryen and Khal Drogo refer to each other as "my sun-and-stars" and "moon of my life".[3][5][7][15][16][17][18] It is unknown whether these expressions are commonly used amongst the Dothraki.

Known translations

Several names of cities, lands and others are described in the published material:

Dothraki Translation Notes
Adakhakileki[19] The Cannibals A ruined city with unknown origins
Haesh Rakhi[3] Lamb Men The Dothraki name for the Lhazareen
Jaqqa rhan[3] Described as the mercy men. Exact translations currently unknown.
Khalakka dothrae[15] The prince is riding
Khalakka dothrae mranha[15] A prince tides inside me
Krazaaj Has[20] Sharp Mountains A Ghiscari city, currently in ruins; the Dothraki name refers to the pyramids that once stood in the city
Krazaaj Zasqa[21][22][23] White Mountains The Dothraki name for the northern portion of the great mountain chain that divides Essos, more commonly known as the Bones
Khal Rhae Mhar[5] The Sorefoot King
Khal Rhaggat[5] The Cart King
Rakh[15] A boy
Rakh haj[15] A strong boy
Rhaesh Andahli[1][24] The land of the Andals The Dothraki name for Westeros
Shierak qiya[8] Bleeding star
Vaes Aresak[25][26] City of Cowards An Ibbenese town, currently abandoned, originally called Ibbish
Vaes Athjikhari[27] City of Sickness A Sarnori city, currently in ruins, originally called Sallosh, which had also been known as the City of Scholars
Vaes Diaf[28] City of the Skull A Ghiscari city, currently in ruins, originally called Hazdahn Mo
Vaes Efe[29] City of Shackles A small Ghiscari town, currently in ruins
Vaes Graddakh[30] City of Filth A Sarnori city, currently in ruins, originally called Sarys
Vaes Jini[31] City of Goats Originally a city called Yinishar, currently in ruins
Vaes Gorqoyi[32] City of the Blood Charge Originally a city called Mardosh, which had also been known as the City of Soldiers
Vaes Khadokh[32][33] City of Corpses Originally a Valyrian colony called Essaria, currently in ruins
Vaes Khewo[34] City of Worms A Sarnori city, currently in ruins, originally called Sarnath
Vaes Leisi[35] City of Ghosts A formed settlement of the “wood walkers” from the Kingdom of the Ifequevron, currently in ruins
Vaes Leqse[36] City of Rats A Sarnori city, currently in ruins, originally called Gornath
Vaes Mejhah[37] City of Whores A small Ghiscari town, currently in ruins
Vaes Orvik[38] City of the Whip A small Qartheen city, currently in ruins; the Dothraki name refers to the great number of slaves taken when the city was destroyed.
Vaes Qosar[39] City of Spiders A Qartheen city, currently in ruins, originally called Qolahn
Vaes Shirosi[40] City of Scorpions A small Qartheen city, currently in ruins
Vaes Tolorro[41] City of Bones An abandoned city of unknown origin
Vojjor Samvi[42] The Broken Gods A Sarnori city originally called Kasath, which had also been known as the City of Caravans, currently in ruins
Yalli Qamayi[43] Wailing Children A Sarnori city originally called Sathar, which had also been known as the Waterfall City, currently in ruins

HBO’s Game of Thrones

The Dothraki language was as used in the TV series has fully been developed by David J. Peterson, a member of the Language Creation Society, for HBO's Game of Thrones. Inspiration was drawn from George R.R. Martin's description of the language, as well as from several real-life languages such as Russian, Turkish, Estonian, Inuktitut and Swahili.[44]

The Dothraki language was developed under two restrictions. The language needed to match the terms used in the books, as well, it needed to be easy to pronounce or learn by the actors. These two constraints were an influence on the grammar and phonology of the Dothraki language developed for HBO.

As of September 2011, the languages comprised 3163 words, though not all of these words are publicly known.[45]

See also

See also the following external links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 3, Daenerys I.
  2. 2.0 2.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 11, Daenerys II.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 61, Daenerys VII.
  4. So Spake Martin: Yet More Questions (July 22, 2001)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 36, Daenerys IV.
  6. 6.0 6.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 23, Daenerys III.
  7. 7.0 7.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 54, Daenerys VI.
  8. 8.0 8.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 12, Daenerys I.
  9. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 40, Daenerys III.
  10. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 57, Daenerys V.
  11. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 2, Daenerys I.
  12. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 16, Daenerys III.
  13. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 36, Daenerys VI.
  14. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 52, Daenerys IX.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 46, Daenerys V.
  16. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 64, Daenerys VIII.
  17. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 68, Daenerys IX.
  18. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 72, Daenerys X.
  19. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Adakhakileki.
  20. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Krazaaj Has.
  21. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Krazaaj Zasqa.
  22. The World of Ice & Fire, The Bones and Beyond.
  23. The World of Ice & Fire, Beyond the Free Cities: East of Ib.
  24. The World of Ice & Fire, Ancient History: The Arrival of the Andals.
  25. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Aresak (Ibbish).
  26. The World of Ice & Fire, Beyond the Free Cities: Ib.
  27. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Athjikhari (Sallosh).
  28. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Diaf (Hazdahn Mo).
  29. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Efe.
  30. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Graddakh (Sarys).
  31. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Jini (Yinishar).
  32. 32.0 32.1 The World of Ice & Fire, Beyond the Free Cities: The Grasslands.
  33. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Khadokh (Essaria).
  34. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Khewo (Sarnath).
  35. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Leisi.
  36. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Leqse (Gornath).
  37. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Mejhah.
  38. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Orvik.
  39. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Qosar (Qolahn).
  40. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Shirosi.
  41. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Tolorro.
  42. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vojjor Samvi (Kasath).
  43. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Yalli Qamayi (Sathar).
  44. Official HBO Press Release (April 12, 2010)
  45. The Header Script (September 21, 2011)