Difference between revisions of "Dothraki language"

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{{TOC right}}The '''Dothraki language''', is the language of the [[Dothraki]], the indigenous nomadic horse people that roam the [[Dothraki Sea]]. Interesting to note that:
+
The '''Dothraki language''', is the language of the [[Dothraki]], the indigenous nomadic horse people that roam the [[Dothraki Sea]].  
* The name for the Dothraki people and their language derives from the verb “dothralat” (“to ride”).
 
* The Dothraki have four different words for “carry,” three for “push,” three for “pull” and at least eight for “horse,” but no word that means “please” or “follow.”
 
* The longest word in Dothraki is “athastokhdeveshizaroon,” which means “from nonsense.”
 
* The words for “related,” “weighted net,” “eclipse,” “dispute,” “redhead,” “oath,” “funeral pyre,” “evidence,” “omen,” “fang” and “harvest moon” all have one element in common: “qoy,” the Dothraki word for “blood.”
 
* Dothraki for “to dream” – “thirat atthiraride” – literally means “to live a wooden life”; in Dothraki, “wooden” (“ido”) is synonymous with “fake.”
 
* The word for “pride” – “athjahakar” – is derived from “jahak,” the traditional long braid worn by Dothraki warriors (“lajaki”).  
 
  
 +
==In the Books==
 +
Interesting to note that:
 +
* The name for the Dothraki people and their language derives from the verb "dothralat" ("to ride"), mirroring the importance of horses in the [[Dothraki]] culture.
 +
* The Dothraki have four different words for "carry," three for "push," three for "pull" and at least eight for "horse," but no word that means "please" or "follow."
 +
* The longest word in Dothraki is "athastokhdeveshizaroon," which means "from nonsense."
 +
* The words for "related," "weighted net," "eclipse," "dispute," "redhead," "oath," "funeral pyre," "evidence," "omen," "fang" and "harvest moon" all have one element in common: "qoy," the Dothraki word for "blood."
 +
* Dothraki for "to dream" – "thirat atthiraride" – literally means "to live a wooden life"; in Dothraki, "wooden" ("ido") is synonymous with "fake."
 +
* The word for "pride" – "athjahakar" – is derived from "jahak," the traditional long braid worn by Dothraki warriors ("lajaki").
  
Additionally the language was fully developed by [[w:David J. Peterson|David J. Peterson]], a member of the [[w:Language Creation Society|Language Creation Society]],for [[w:HBO|HBO]]'s television series [[Game of Thrones]]. over 1700 words, Peterson drew inspiration from George R.R. Martin’s description of the language, as well as from such languages as [[w:Russian language|Russian]], [[w:Turkish language|Turkish]], [[w:Estonian language|Estonian]], [[w:Inuktitut|Inuktitut]] and [[w:Swahili language|Swahili]].<ref name=hbo>{{cite web |url=http://dothraki.conlang.org/official-hbo-press-release/ |title=Official HBO Press Release |date=April 12, 2010}}</ref>
+
* the Dothraki use "it is known" concerning a piece of common knowledge or folklore.
 +
* "my Sun and Stars", is used when referring to a husband.
 +
 
 +
==Creation==
 +
The language was fully developed by [[w:David J. Peterson|David J. Peterson]], a member of the [[w:Language Creation Society|Language Creation Society]],for [[w:HBO|HBO]]'s television series [[Game of Thrones]]. over 1700 words, Peterson drew inspiration from George R.R. Martin’s description of the language, as well as from such languages as [[w:Russian language|Russian]], [[w:Turkish language|Turkish]], [[w:Estonian language|Estonian]], [[w:Inuktitut|Inuktitut]] and [[w:Swahili language|Swahili]].<ref name=hbo>{{cite web |url=http://dothraki.conlang.org/official-hbo-press-release/ |title=Official HBO Press Release |date=April 12, 2010}}</ref>
  
==Language constraints== 
 
 
The Dothraki language was developed under two significant constraints.  First, the language had to match the uses already put down in the books. Secondly, it had to be easily pronounceable or learnable by the actors. These two constraints influenced the grammar and phonology of the language: for instance, voiceless stops can be aspirated or unaspirated, as in English.   
 
The Dothraki language was developed under two significant constraints.  First, the language had to match the uses already put down in the books. Secondly, it had to be easily pronounceable or learnable by the actors. These two constraints influenced the grammar and phonology of the language: for instance, voiceless stops can be aspirated or unaspirated, as in English.   
  
==Phonology and romanization==
+
==Language Specifics==
 +
===Phonology and romanization===
 
In Dothraki the consonants '''d''', '''t''', '''s''', '''n''' are dental, which sets it apart from many languages. David Peterson has said that "You know, most people probably don’t really know what Arabic actually sounds like, so to an untrained ear, it might sound like Arabic. To someone who knows Arabic, it doesn’t. I tend to think of the sound as a mix between Arabic (minus the distinctive pharyngeals) and Spanish, due to the dental consonants." <ref name=tor>{{cite web |url=http://www.tor.com/blogs/2010/04/creating-dothraki-an-interview-with-david-j-peterson-and-sai-emrys |title= Creating Dothraki - An Interview with David J Peterson and Sai Emrys |date = April 22, 2010}}</ref>.  Regarding the orthography, the Dothraki themselves don't have a writing system&mdash;nor do many of the surrounding peoples (e.g. the [[Lhazareen]]). If there were to be any written examples of Dothraki in the [[A Song of Ice and Fire]] universe, it would be in a writing system developed in the [[Free Cities]] and adapted to Dothraki, or in some place like [[Ghis]] or [[Qarth]], which do have writing systems.<ref name="wes.ru">{{cite web |url=http://westeros.ru/?p=3779 |title=Westeros.Ru interview |date=June 24, 2010}}</ref>   
 
In Dothraki the consonants '''d''', '''t''', '''s''', '''n''' are dental, which sets it apart from many languages. David Peterson has said that "You know, most people probably don’t really know what Arabic actually sounds like, so to an untrained ear, it might sound like Arabic. To someone who knows Arabic, it doesn’t. I tend to think of the sound as a mix between Arabic (minus the distinctive pharyngeals) and Spanish, due to the dental consonants." <ref name=tor>{{cite web |url=http://www.tor.com/blogs/2010/04/creating-dothraki-an-interview-with-david-j-peterson-and-sai-emrys |title= Creating Dothraki - An Interview with David J Peterson and Sai Emrys |date = April 22, 2010}}</ref>.  Regarding the orthography, the Dothraki themselves don't have a writing system&mdash;nor do many of the surrounding peoples (e.g. the [[Lhazareen]]). If there were to be any written examples of Dothraki in the [[A Song of Ice and Fire]] universe, it would be in a writing system developed in the [[Free Cities]] and adapted to Dothraki, or in some place like [[Ghis]] or [[Qarth]], which do have writing systems.<ref name="wes.ru">{{cite web |url=http://westeros.ru/?p=3779 |title=Westeros.Ru interview |date=June 24, 2010}}</ref>   
  
=== Consonants ===
+
==== Consonants ====
 
There are twenty-three consonant phonemes in the Dothraki language. Here the Anglicised form is given on the left, and the IPA in brackets.   
 
There are twenty-three consonant phonemes in the Dothraki language. Here the Anglicised form is given on the left, and the IPA in brackets.   
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
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The digraphs '''kh''', '''sh''', '''th''' and '''zh''' are all fricatives, while '''ch''' and '''j''' are affricates.  The letters '''c''' and '''x''' never appear in Dothraki, although '''c''' appears in the digraph '''ch''', pronounced like 'check'. '''b''' and '''p''' seem to appear only in names, as in '''Bharbo''' and '''Pono'''.  Voiceless stops may be aspirated. This does not change word meaning.
 
The digraphs '''kh''', '''sh''', '''th''' and '''zh''' are all fricatives, while '''ch''' and '''j''' are affricates.  The letters '''c''' and '''x''' never appear in Dothraki, although '''c''' appears in the digraph '''ch''', pronounced like 'check'. '''b''' and '''p''' seem to appear only in names, as in '''Bharbo''' and '''Pono'''.  Voiceless stops may be aspirated. This does not change word meaning.
  
=== Vowels ===
+
==== Vowels ====
 
Dothraki has a four vowel system shown below:
 
Dothraki has a four vowel system shown below:
  
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In sequence of multiple vowels, each such vowel represents a separate syllable.  Examples: '''shierak''' [ʃi.e.'ɾak] ''star'', '''rhaesh''' [ɾha.'eʃ] ''country'', '''khaleesi''' ['xa.l̪e.e.si] ''queen''.
 
In sequence of multiple vowels, each such vowel represents a separate syllable.  Examples: '''shierak''' [ʃi.e.'ɾak] ''star'', '''rhaesh''' [ɾha.'eʃ] ''country'', '''khaleesi''' ['xa.l̪e.e.si] ''queen''.
  
== Phonotactics ==  
+
=== Phonotactics ===  
=== Geminates ===  
+
==== Geminates ====  
 
Following certain prefixes, initial consonants become geminates. Furthermore, initial consonant clusters become reduced in the romanization, such that '''a-th-th''' becomes '''atth''', and not '''athth'''.  We have examples for '''n''', '''d''', '''s''', '''th''', '''r''', '''j'''. We also have mid-word geminates for '''k''', '''g''', '''v''', '''q''' and '''r'''.   
 
Following certain prefixes, initial consonants become geminates. Furthermore, initial consonant clusters become reduced in the romanization, such that '''a-th-th''' becomes '''atth''', and not '''athth'''.  We have examples for '''n''', '''d''', '''s''', '''th''', '''r''', '''j'''. We also have mid-word geminates for '''k''', '''g''', '''v''', '''q''' and '''r'''.   
  
=== Vowel clusters ===  
+
==== Vowel clusters ====  
 
Dothraki appears to allow unlimited sequences of vowels in a word. Each such vowel represents a separate syllable.  Examples: ''shierak'' star, and ''rhaesh'' country.  Furthermore, Dothraki allows for two of the same vowel to occur near each other, as in ''khaleesi''.  
 
Dothraki appears to allow unlimited sequences of vowels in a word. Each such vowel represents a separate syllable.  Examples: ''shierak'' star, and ''rhaesh'' country.  Furthermore, Dothraki allows for two of the same vowel to occur near each other, as in ''khaleesi''.  
 
   
 
   
==Grammar==
+
===Grammar===
===Word Order===  
+
====Word Order====  
 
In a basic sentence, the order of these elements (when all three are present) is as in English: First comes the Subject (S), then comes the Verb (V), then comes the Object (O). Here's an example:   
 
In a basic sentence, the order of these elements (when all three are present) is as in English: First comes the Subject (S), then comes the Verb (V), then comes the Object (O). Here's an example:   
 
:'''Khal ahhas arakh.'''  
 
:'''Khal ahhas arakh.'''  
Line 175: Line 181:
 
:''this very violent father of mine with a whip''  Adverbs normally are sentence final, but they can also immediately follow the verb. Modal particles precede the verb.<ref name="dothraki101">{{cite web |url=http://www.makinggameofthrones.com/production-diary/2010/12/15/dothraki-101.html |title=Dothraki 101 post on HBO's Making Game of Throne's blog |date=December 15, 2010}}</ref>
 
:''this very violent father of mine with a whip''  Adverbs normally are sentence final, but they can also immediately follow the verb. Modal particles precede the verb.<ref name="dothraki101">{{cite web |url=http://www.makinggameofthrones.com/production-diary/2010/12/15/dothraki-101.html |title=Dothraki 101 post on HBO's Making Game of Throne's blog |date=December 15, 2010}}</ref>
  
===Case===  
+
====Case====  
 
It is known to have at least four noun cases - nominative, accusative, genitive, and ablative.<ref name="hbo"/><ref name=SciAm>{{cite web |url=http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=dothraki-response-2010-06-02 |title=The Dothraki response to a call for science in a created language |date=June 3, 2010}}</ref> It also may have the allative case, and probably lacks the dative. <ref name="wes.ru">{{cite web |url=http://westeros.ru/?p=3779 |title=Westeros.ru |date=June 24, 2010}}</ref>   
 
It is known to have at least four noun cases - nominative, accusative, genitive, and ablative.<ref name="hbo"/><ref name=SciAm>{{cite web |url=http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=dothraki-response-2010-06-02 |title=The Dothraki response to a call for science in a created language |date=June 3, 2010}}</ref> It also may have the allative case, and probably lacks the dative. <ref name="wes.ru">{{cite web |url=http://westeros.ru/?p=3779 |title=Westeros.ru |date=June 24, 2010}}</ref>   
  
==Lexicon==  
+
===Lexicon===  
 
Peterson had created around two thousand words for Dothraki at the point of the shooting of the second episode. The publicly available lexicon, including the odd inflectional form, has been [http://docs.dothraki.org/Dothraki.pdf posted online].  A few sample words are:<ref name=PRA>{{cite web |url=http://dothraki.conlang.org/press-release-audio/ |title= Press Release Audio |date=April 13, 2010}}</ref>  
 
Peterson had created around two thousand words for Dothraki at the point of the shooting of the second episode. The publicly available lexicon, including the odd inflectional form, has been [http://docs.dothraki.org/Dothraki.pdf posted online].  A few sample words are:<ref name=PRA>{{cite web |url=http://dothraki.conlang.org/press-release-audio/ |title= Press Release Audio |date=April 13, 2010}}</ref>  
  

Revision as of 12:42, 8 April 2012

The Dothraki language, is the language of the Dothraki, the indigenous nomadic horse people that roam the Dothraki Sea.

In the Books

Interesting to note that:

  • The name for the Dothraki people and their language derives from the verb "dothralat" ("to ride"), mirroring the importance of horses in the Dothraki culture.
  • The Dothraki have four different words for "carry," three for "push," three for "pull" and at least eight for "horse," but no word that means "please" or "follow."
  • The longest word in Dothraki is "athastokhdeveshizaroon," which means "from nonsense."
  • The words for "related," "weighted net," "eclipse," "dispute," "redhead," "oath," "funeral pyre," "evidence," "omen," "fang" and "harvest moon" all have one element in common: "qoy," the Dothraki word for "blood."
  • Dothraki for "to dream" – "thirat atthiraride" – literally means "to live a wooden life"; in Dothraki, "wooden" ("ido") is synonymous with "fake."
  • The word for "pride" – "athjahakar" – is derived from "jahak," the traditional long braid worn by Dothraki warriors ("lajaki").
  • the Dothraki use "it is known" concerning a piece of common knowledge or folklore.
  • "my Sun and Stars", is used when referring to a husband.

Creation

The language was fully developed by David J. Peterson, a member of the Language Creation Society,for HBO's television series Game of Thrones. over 1700 words, Peterson drew inspiration from George R.R. Martin’s description of the language, as well as from such languages as Russian, Turkish, Estonian, Inuktitut and Swahili.[1]

The Dothraki language was developed under two significant constraints. First, the language had to match the uses already put down in the books. Secondly, it had to be easily pronounceable or learnable by the actors. These two constraints influenced the grammar and phonology of the language: for instance, voiceless stops can be aspirated or unaspirated, as in English.

Language Specifics

Phonology and romanization

In Dothraki the consonants d, t, s, n are dental, which sets it apart from many languages. David Peterson has said that "You know, most people probably don’t really know what Arabic actually sounds like, so to an untrained ear, it might sound like Arabic. To someone who knows Arabic, it doesn’t. I tend to think of the sound as a mix between Arabic (minus the distinctive pharyngeals) and Spanish, due to the dental consonants." [2]. Regarding the orthography, the Dothraki themselves don't have a writing system—nor do many of the surrounding peoples (e.g. the Lhazareen). If there were to be any written examples of Dothraki in the A Song of Ice and Fire universe, it would be in a writing system developed in the Free Cities and adapted to Dothraki, or in some place like Ghis or Qarth, which do have writing systems.[3]

Consonants

There are twenty-three consonant phonemes in the Dothraki language. Here the Anglicised form is given on the left, and the IPA in brackets.

Labial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Uvular Glottal
Language Creation Society t [t̪] k [k] q [q]
Voiced plosive d [d̪] g [g]
Affricate ch [tʃ]
Voiced affricate j [dʒ]
Voiceless fricative f [f] th [θ] s [s] sh [ʃ] kh [x] h [h]
Voiced fricative v [] z [z] zh [ʒ]
Nasal m [m] n [n̪]
Lateral l [l̪]
Trill r [r]
Tap r [ɾ]
Glide w [w] y [j]

The digraphs kh, sh, th and zh are all fricatives, while ch and j are affricates. The letters c and x never appear in Dothraki, although c appears in the digraph ch, pronounced like 'check'. b and p seem to appear only in names, as in Bharbo and Pono. Voiceless stops may be aspirated. This does not change word meaning.

Vowels

Dothraki has a four vowel system shown below:

Vowels Diphthongs
i [i] iy [ij]
e [e] ey [ej]
o [o] oy [oj]
a [a] ay [aj]

In the A Song of Ice and Fire books, u never occurs as a vowel, appearing only after "q", and only in names, as in Jhiqui and Quaro.

In sequence of multiple vowels, each such vowel represents a separate syllable. Examples: shierak [ʃi.e.'ɾak] star, rhaesh [ɾha.'eʃ] country, khaleesi ['xa.l̪e.e.si] queen.

Phonotactics

Geminates

Following certain prefixes, initial consonants become geminates. Furthermore, initial consonant clusters become reduced in the romanization, such that a-th-th becomes atth, and not athth. We have examples for n, d, s, th, r, j. We also have mid-word geminates for k, g, v, q and r.

Vowel clusters

Dothraki appears to allow unlimited sequences of vowels in a word. Each such vowel represents a separate syllable. Examples: shierak star, and rhaesh country. Furthermore, Dothraki allows for two of the same vowel to occur near each other, as in khaleesi.

Grammar

Word Order

In a basic sentence, the order of these elements (when all three are present) is as in English: First comes the Subject (S), then comes the Verb (V), then comes the Object (O). Here's an example:

Khal ahhas arakh.
The Khal (S) sharpened (V) the arakh (O).

When only a subject is a present, the subject precedes the verb, as it does in English:

Arakh hasa.
The arakh (S) is sharp (V). In more complicated phrases, there is a specific order as well. The order is (maximally) as follows: demonstrative, noun, adverb, adjective, genitive noun, prepositional phrase. Prepositions always precede their noun complements.
jin ave sekke verven anni m'orvikoon
this father very violent of.mine with.a.whip
this very violent father of mine with a whip Adverbs normally are sentence final, but they can also immediately follow the verb. Modal particles precede the verb.[4]

Case

It is known to have at least four noun cases - nominative, accusative, genitive, and ablative.[1][5] It also may have the allative case, and probably lacks the dative. [3]

Lexicon

Peterson had created around two thousand words for Dothraki at the point of the shooting of the second episode. The publicly available lexicon, including the odd inflectional form, has been posted online. A few sample words are:[6]

References and Notes

This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Dothraki language. The list of authors can be seen in the page history of Dothraki language. As with A Wiki of Ice and Fire, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.

External links

Дотракийский язык]]