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{{Quote|"I don't have a whole imaginary language in my desk here, the way Tolkien did."<br><br>
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Throughout ''[[A Song of Ice and Fire]]'', numerous cultural and regional dialects are discussed. These dialects form the world's spoken tongue, and help define its people.
Tolkien was a philologist, and an Oxford don, and could spend decades laboriously inventing Elvish in all its detail. I, alas, am only a hardworking SF and fantasy novel, and I don't have his gift for languages. That is to say, I have not actually created a Valyrian language. The best I could do was try to sketch in each of the chief tongues of my imaginary world in broad strokes, and give them each their characteristic sounds and spellings.<ref>[http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/Entry/1250/ SSM]</ref>
 
|[[George R. R. Martin]]}}
 
  
Throughout ''[[A Song of Ice and Fire]]'', numerous cultural and regional dialects are discussed. These dialects form the world's spoken tongue, and help define it's people.
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==Portrayal==
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Unlike [[w:J. R. R. Tolkien|J. R. R. Tolkien]], who created entire languages with grammar, syntax, and tenses, [[George R. R. Martin]] has created only a few words from each language in his world, and his languages are not conveyed in any great detail. Instead, the tongue in which they are speaking is noted but rendered in English, with added characteristics and flavor portrayed through out the text. As Martin explained,
  
==Westeros==
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{{quote|Tolkien was a philologist, and an Oxford don, and could spend decades laboriously inventing [[w:Elvish languages (Middle-earth)|Elvish]] in all its detail. I, alas, am only a hardworking SF and fantasy novel, and I don't have his gift for languages. That is to say, I have not actually created a [[High Valyrian|Valyrian language]]. The best I could do was try to sketch in each of the chief tongues of my imaginary world in broad strokes, and give them each their characteristic sounds and spellings.<ref>[[So Spake Martin]]: [http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/Entry/1250/ Yet More Questions (July 22, 2001)]</ref>}}
Many tongues are spoken on Westeros, but only two are native to it: the [[Old Tongue]], which was spoken before the Andal invasion, and the [[Common Tongue]], which followed it and is the single dominant language across the [[Seven Kingdoms]], although there are minor variations to it from place to place, [[Dornishmen]] can communicate with [[Northmen]] without difficulty.
 
  
Additionally it may be possible that the [[Rhoynar]] brought their own language with them, but this has since disappeared. Foreign tongues are taught in the [[Citadel]]; otherwise, they are brought from other lands by immigrants, merchants, sellswords, and the like.
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[[w:David J. Peterson|David J. Peterson]] developed spoken [[Dothraki language|Dothraki]] and High Valyrian for HBO's television adaptation, ''[[Game of Thrones]]''. The languages expand greatly from Martin's few created words. A website, [http://www.dothraki.org/ dothraki.org], helps teach and spread the constructed tongues. The popularity of the Dothraki language has led it to be called "the new [[w:Klingon language|Klingon]]".<ref>[http://www.ew.com/article/2015/04/17/dothraki-new-klingon Entertainment Weekly: Is Dothraki the new Klingon? (April 17, 2015)]</ref>
  
==Across the narrow sea==
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==Languages of Westeros==
many languages exist on the continent across the narrow sea. The most important is [[High Valyrian]], the language of the old [[Valyrian Freehold]], spoken now in bastardized version across its remnants.
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The [[Old Tongue]] was the language of the [[First Men]], who dominated [[Westeros]] for thousands of years. Today, the Old Tongue is still remembered by [[giants]] and some [[free folk]] who live [[beyond the Wall]],{{ref|acok|51}}{{ref|asos|15}} but most people within the [[Seven Kingdoms]] know no other language than the [[Common Tongue]]. Although the Common Tongue has minor variations and regional accents,<ref>[[So Spake Martin]]: [http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/Entry/2802 Cyvasse, Accents, Historical Mysteries, and Dornish Nationalism (April 18, 2008)]</ref>{{ref|agot|26}} [[Dornishmen]] can communicate with [[northmen]] without difficulty. Foreign tongues are taught in the [[Citadel]] and by [[maesters]],{{ref|adwd|1}} or are brought from other lands by immigrants, merchants, sellswords, and the like.
  
* [[Dothraki language]], is the language of the [[Dothraki]], the indigenous inhabitants of the Dothraki Sea in the series A Song of Ice and Fire written by George R. R. Martin.
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==Languages of Essos==
* [[High Valyrian]], was the language the [[Valyrian Freehold|Valyria empire]], before the Doom came and it fell apart.
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Many languages exist in [[Essos]], the continent across the [[narrow sea]].  
* [[Bastard Valyrian|Low Valyrian]], Bastard Valyrian, as it is also called, is the language of the nine [[Free Cities]] and the [[Slaver's Bay#The Cities of Slaver's Bay|Slaver Cities]], Each of the cities has it's own dialect, and each dialect likely has it's own separate derived vocabulary.
 
:* Tyroshi, Little is known about Tyroshi Low Valyrian, except concerning its pronunciation.
 
<!--:* Braavosi, has it's own dialect-->
 
  
* Ghiscari - The tongue used by the [[Ghiscari]] is largely forgotten and supplemented by a bastardised vestion of High Valyrian, though it is still spoken by some and engraved Ghiscari glyphs can be found on various objects.
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* [[High Valyrian]], the language of the old [[Valyrian Freehold]], is now spoken in bastardized dialects across its remnants, including the [[Free Cities]] and [[Slaver's Bay]]. Each Free City's dialect is on its way to be a separate language,{{ref|adwd|1}} but someone who is fluent in High Valyrian can communicate well enough.{{ref|adwd|6}}
* Qartheen
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* The [[Dothraki language]] is the tongue of the [[Dothraki]], the indigenous inhabitants of the [[Dothraki sea]].
* [[Language of Asshai]], The people of Asshai, are well versed in witchcraft and wizardry, and have a language of their own, used in their spells (as did the Valyrians).
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* [[Old Ghiscari]] is a largely extinct tongue. It was spoken five thousand years ago by the [[Ghiscari]] people of the [[Old Empire of Ghis]], which was destroyed by the [[Valyrian Freehold]]. Ghiscari was supplanted by a "mongrel" blend with High Valyrian,{{ref|adwd|14}}{{ref|adwd|60}} though it is still spoken by some, and engraved Ghiscari glyphs can be found on various old objects.{{ref|asos|23}}
* Lhazareen - is described as singsong <ref>[[A Game of Thrones]], p557</ref>
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* The people of [[Asshai]] have a language which is used in [[spells]].{{ref|acok|10}}
* [[Summer Tongue]], [[Summer Islands]] have their own language.
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* [[Lhazareen]] is described as singsong.{{Ref|AGOT|61}}
* The [[Trade Tongue]] - The trade tongue is often spoken, a coarse argot that has developed using words from a dozen languages (many of them insults) and hand gestures <ref>[[A Dance with Dragons]] p.508</ref>
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* The [[Summer Tongue]] is used in the [[Summer Isles]].
* Other Languages
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* The [[trade talk]] is a coarse argot that has developed using words from a dozen languages (many of them insults) and hand gestures.{{Ref|AFFC|34}}{{Ref|ADWD|47}}
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* The unnamed [[Ibbenese language]] is a "guttural, grunting tongue"{{ref|TWOIAF| Ib}} spoken by the [[Ibbenese]] in [[Ibben]] and northern Essos and is possibly related to the tongue of the ancient [[Hairy Men]].
  
 
==Non-Human Communication==
 
==Non-Human Communication==
* The [[Children of the Forest]] sing in the [[True Tongue]].
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* The [[children of the forest]] speak and sing in the [[True Tongue]], and have taught it to some [[raven]]s.{{ref|adwd|13}}{{ref|adwd|34}}
* The [[Others]]' Language, "The Other said something in a language that Will did not know: his voice was like the cracking of ice on a winter lake, and the words were mocking."
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* The [[Others]]' language is described as sounding like cracking of ice on a winter lake.{{ref|AGOT|Prologue}} In ''[[Game of Thrones]]'' it is named [[Skroth]].
* Necromancy.
 
* [[Beastiary|Animals]]
 
 
 
== See Also ==
 
Created for '''HBO'''<nowiki>'</nowiki>s ''[[Game of Thrones]]'', a actual spoken [[Dothraki language]] has been developed. This language takes cues from [[George R. R. Martin]]'s few bits of published words, and expands greatly upon it. A website, [http://www.dothraki.org/ dothraki.org], has been created to help teach and spread the constructed tongue. Film critic and indie director Lee Demarbre has called the language the ''"new Klingon"''.
 
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
* Dothraki wiki, on [http://wiki.dothraki.org/dothraki/Other_languages languages]
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* [http://wiki.dothraki.org/Other_languages Dothraki wiki, on languages]
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{References|2}}
 
{{References|2}}
  
{{Template:Languages}}
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{{Languages}}
[[Category:Languages|!]]
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[[fr:Langues (conception générale)]][[ru:Языки]]
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[[Category:Languages| ]]
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[[fr:Langues (conception générale)]]
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[[ru:Языки]]

Latest revision as of 22:22, 6 June 2019

Throughout A Song of Ice and Fire, numerous cultural and regional dialects are discussed. These dialects form the world's spoken tongue, and help define its people.

Portrayal

Unlike J. R. R. Tolkien, who created entire languages with grammar, syntax, and tenses, George R. R. Martin has created only a few words from each language in his world, and his languages are not conveyed in any great detail. Instead, the tongue in which they are speaking is noted but rendered in English, with added characteristics and flavor portrayed through out the text. As Martin explained,

Tolkien was a philologist, and an Oxford don, and could spend decades laboriously inventing Elvish in all its detail. I, alas, am only a hardworking SF and fantasy novel, and I don't have his gift for languages. That is to say, I have not actually created a Valyrian language. The best I could do was try to sketch in each of the chief tongues of my imaginary world in broad strokes, and give them each their characteristic sounds and spellings.[1]

David J. Peterson developed spoken Dothraki and High Valyrian for HBO's television adaptation, Game of Thrones. The languages expand greatly from Martin's few created words. A website, dothraki.org, helps teach and spread the constructed tongues. The popularity of the Dothraki language has led it to be called "the new Klingon".[2]

Languages of Westeros

The Old Tongue was the language of the First Men, who dominated Westeros for thousands of years. Today, the Old Tongue is still remembered by giants and some free folk who live beyond the Wall,[3][4] but most people within the Seven Kingdoms know no other language than the Common Tongue. Although the Common Tongue has minor variations and regional accents,[5][6] Dornishmen can communicate with northmen without difficulty. Foreign tongues are taught in the Citadel and by maesters,[7] or are brought from other lands by immigrants, merchants, sellswords, and the like.

Languages of Essos

Many languages exist in Essos, the continent across the narrow sea.

Non-Human Communication

External links

References