Aegon Targaryen (son of Rhaegar)/Theories
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Since Aegon Targaryens appearence, as "young Griff", as the head of the landing of the Golden Company in Westeros, in the Stormlands, many bookcharacters have theorized about the identity of this "Aegon", also bookreaders have thought that there is more than one possibility who could he be.
Aegon is really Aegon Targaryen VI, the son of Rhaegar
Aegon claims that he is the son of Rhaegar, rescued by Varys during the Sack of King's Landing through the forces of Tywin Lannister. Tywin has sent Ser Gregor Clegane and Ser Amory Lorch to kill Rhaegars family to secure the throne for Robert Baratheon. Varys said, he switched the baby Aegon with the baby of a commoner and brought the young Targaryen to Essos, to raise him, prepare him to rule and to claim the throne when he is old enough! The possibility that this is true exists, Varys has many ways as spymaster to arrange things like this, even to prepare, in a worst case scenario, to switch the crownprince with a baby of the same age.
The circumstance that this occured during of the Sack of King's Landing has brought up the question if Varys had enough time to do that, but it's important to know that Aerys II had already planned the Wildfire plot, the destruction of King's Landing through wildfire, before, and this gave the spymaster enough time to find a suitable baby to switch, to have a chance to continue the Targaryen-Dynasty.
When Varys murdered Kevan Lannister, who was Lord Regent at this time, to prevent him of clearing up the mess caused by his niece Cersei Lannister and to secure the campaign of the Golden Company, he revealed that Aegon is really the son of Rhaegar. Because of the situation that Kevan was killed a few moments after this revelation, Varys had no reason to lie.
Aegon is a Blackfyre
Some readers have the theory that Aegon is in truth a Blackfyre, a descendant of Daemon I Blackfyre, who started a rebellion against the Iron Throne like his offsprings which resulted in more than one battle. Official the male Blackfyre-line was wiped out when Ser Barristan Selmy killed Maelys I Blackfyre, but Aegon could be related to this House/family. Bookreaders have theorized that the Golden Company would never back a Targaryen after they have fought for generations against them. Illyrio mentioned towards Tyrion Lannister that the Blackfyres are extinct in the male line (a information that is not varifiable, neither for Tyrion nor for the bookreaders), which could imply there are still female-line descendants. Or that Maelys I had a wife and children, in secret! In this case, because of the age, Aegon could be his grandson. Or he is in a similar way related to another known Blackfyre of the timespan, a man who bears the same name like their ancestor, another Daemon Blackfyre who was killed by Maelys when both fought over the command of the Golden Company.
Aegon is just a boy with the right age and look
Shortly before his death Kevan Lannister mentioned in a Small Council meeting that Aegon isn't Aegon, just a boy as part of a plot to gain support for the Golden Company. That's also possible because in Essos, in the Free Cities, are people who descend from Valyria, with the purple eyes and the hair of silver-gold or platinum white. It is known that Targaryen kings looked for brides in the Free Cities like Lys to find right matches for their sons, especially when there were no other girls available, like sisters/cousins of House Targaryen or daughters of other Valyrian families, like House Velaryon. Varys and Illyrio Mopatis could have found a boy with the right age and look to portray him as Aegon, so that he can gain support. Varys is originally from Lys and had as spymaster still contacts to all Free Cities, including his hometown so that he could arrange such a scheme. Ironically this could mean that even if Aegon is really just a boy of right look and age, he could still have Targaryen-blood in his veins because Aerion Targaryen, who was called "Brightflame", has spent time in Lys, rode with the Second Sons and could have fathered a few children during his time there!
Aegon is the son of Illyrio Mopatis
This explains why Illyrio is helping him. Tyrion thinks there is something more Illyrio is getting from his plan to cause a Targaryen restoration. Illyrio married a Lysene pillowhouse worker, Serra, and Lys is known to have people with Valyrian features, like mentioned above. This could fit in with the theory of Aegon being a Blackfyre (the female line) or descended from Aerion's bastards, as Serra's ancestry has not been revealed.