The bronze link of a maester's chain likely symbolizes his expertise in either astronomy or astrology.[N 1] Maester Nicol has studied the movement of the stars and Maester Luwin, in service at Winterfell during the rule of Lord Eddard Stark, has a Myrish tube lens through which he looks at stars in the sky.
The moon and sun
It is known that daytime period is correlated with the seasons. Towards the end of summer, the days start to grow shorter, a trend which continues through autumn. The end of a season is determined by the Conclave of the Citadel, who base their conclusion on the measurements and reports of maesters all over the realm.
The known world is orbited by a moon in a similar fashion to Earth's. George R. R. Martin has specified that "Twelve moon [turns] to a year, as on earth. Even on our earth, years have nothing to do with the seasons, or with the cycles of the moon. In the world of Westeros, a year is a measure of a solar cycle, i.e., of how long it takes the earth to make one complete revolution around the sun.
In his The Measure of the Days, Maester Nicol argues, based upon his studies on the movement of stars, that the seasons possibly were once of a regular length, determined by the way in which the globe faces the sun. According to Maester Yandel, however, although the notion appears to be true, Nicol has not been able to find any evidence that regular seasons were once the case, beyond the most ancient of tales.
In the faith of R'hllor, the Lord of Light, the red priests and other followers pray before a nightfire, thanking R'hllor for ending the day, while beseeching him to bring the dawn and banish the darkness. The nightfires are lit at sunset. Fires are also lit each morning at first light, where the red priests welcome the sun. Other red priests might attend to their fires during the entire night. A common phrase of prayer is "the night is dark and full of terrors". A typical prayer sequence contains the phrase "Yours is the sun that warms our days, yours the stars that guard us in the dark of night. (Lord of Light, defend us. The night is dark and full of terrors. Lord of Light, protect us.) R'hllor who gave us breath, we thank you. R'hllor who gave us day, we thank you. (We thank you for the sun that warms us. We thank you for the stars that watch us. We thank you for our hearths and for our torches, that keep the savage dark at bay.)".[N 2]
The Qartheen believe that there were once two moons in the sky. This second moon supposedly came too close to the sun and cracked, having dragons pouring forth from it. The Dothraki believe that the moon is a goddess, wife to the sun.
Planets and other moving objects
There are seven wanderers in the sky over the known world, each of which are sacred to the Faith of the Seven and equated with one of the seven gods. This would imply that each wanderer is a planet, as the word planet is derived from the Greek word πλανῆται (planētai, which means "wanderers" or "wandering stars").
Stars and Constellations
Myrish eyes mounted on tripods could be used to observe the stars. There are also dedicated observatories, including one kept at Winterfell by Luwin. The maesters of the Citadel compile maps of the starry sky for their research and studies and their knowledge is useful in navigation at the open sea, in particularly the Galley, the Crone's Lamp, and the eye of the Ice Dragon constellations.
Constellations are the names given to a group of stars linked close together. Often times, they represent some sort of picture. Their names usually vary between the various peoples.
The Free Folk have many of the same names for constellations as the folk of the Seven Kingdoms do, although there are some differences. The King's Crown is the named the Cradle by them, as the Stallion is named the Horned Lord. The Dothraki for their part believe that the stars are the souls of the deceased, their brightness being a reflection of their exploits during their lives.
- Crone's Lantern
- Ice Dragon
- King's Crown
- Stallion (also known as the Horned Lord among the free folk)
- Sword of the Morning
- Definition of "astronomy" as retrieved from Wikipedia on May 17, 2018
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 41, Jon V.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 20, Eddard IV.
- The World of Ice & Fire, Ancient History: The Long Night.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 66, Bran VII.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 21, Tyrion III.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 20, Brienne IV.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 21, Jon V.
- A Clash of Kings, Prologue.
- So Spake Martin, Asshai.com Forum Chat (July 27, 2008)
- So Spake Martin: Measuring Time (June 12, 1999)
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 63, Davos VI.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 3, Daenerys I.
- A Feast for Crows, Prologue.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 33, Tyrion VIII.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 23, Daenerys III.
- The World of Ice & Fire, Ancient History: The Rise of Valyria.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 26, Jon III.
- Definition of planet by Merriam-Webster (retrieved on May 19, 2018)
- Define Planet at Dictionary.com (retrieved on May 19, 2018)
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 15, Samwell II.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 35, Jon VII.
- A Clash of Kings, Chapter 6, Jon I.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 69, Jon IX.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 5, Jon I.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 72, Daenerys X.
- The Sworn Sword.