Difference between revisions of "Bastardy"

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A bastard in the law of England and Wales was a person whose parents, at the time of their birth, were not married to each other. A person conceived to a couple not married to each other but who subsequently marry before the birth would not be treated as a bastard.[citation needed]
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A '''bastard''' is a person whose parents are not married to each other.{{Ref|TMK}} A bastard can also be referred to as '''natural son''' or '''natural daughter'''.{{ref|ASOS|38}}{{Ref|ASOS|53}}{{Ref|ASOS|68}}{{Ref|AFFC|21}}
  
Unlike many other systems of law, there was no possibility of post hoc legitimisation of a bastard. If the parents married after the birth, the child would remain a bastard.[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bastard_%28Law_of_England_and_Wales%29]
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==Social status==
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[[File:MagaliVilleneuve Bastard Daughter.jpg|A bastard daughter of Prince [[Oberyn Martell]] - by Magali Villeneuve. © Fantasy Flight Games|thumb|right|400px]]
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A polite way of referring to someone who is bastard-born is referring to them as a "natural son" or "natural daughter".{{ref|ASOS|38}}{{Ref|ASOS|53}}{{Ref|ASOS|68}}{{Ref|AFFC|21}} Others might refer to a bastard simply as "bastard-born".{{Ref|ASOS|15}}{{Ref|ASOS|36}}{{Ref|ASOS|48}} The term "baseborn"{{Ref|agot|19}}{{Ref|AGOT|30}} is used to refer to a child of whom one parent is of the [[smallfolk]].{{ref|TMK}}{{ref|agot|19}}{{Ref|agot|30}}{{Ref|agot|35}} A euphemism for being bastard-born is being "born on the wrong side of the blanket".{{ref|TMK}}
  
As polite way of referring to someone who is bastard-born, someone may be referred to as a 'natural son' or 'natural daughter.' A less polite term is 'baseborn.' A euphamism for being bastard-born is 'being born on the wrong side of the sheets.'
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It is not unexpected for noblemen to have bastard children,{{Ref|AGOT|6}} though it is considered rude to pry into the origins of a man's bastards.{{ref|ASOS|73}} While it is not typical for a noble to bring his bastards home and raise them with his own children, it is usually expected that he will see to the child's well-being to some degree.{{Ref|aGoT|6}} Some might chose to have their bastards fostered at the home of another lord,{{ref|acok|16}} while others might decide to raise their bastard at their own home, in the position of a servant (e.g. [[Falia Flowers]]).{{ref|AFFC|29}} A noble-born wife can take insult at her husband's bastards being introduced into her household and being commensurate in rank with her legally-born children.{{ref|agot|6}}
  
====Family Life and Status====
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There is a certain stigma that comes from being born as a bastard. They are said to be born from lust, lies, and weakness,{{Ref|asos|55}}{{Ref|ASOS|73}}{{Ref|TSS}} and as such, they are said to be wanton and treacherous by nature.{{Ref|ASOS|55}}{{Ref|ASOS|73}}{{Ref|TSS}} Because of the stigma bastards have to deal with, they are said to grow up faster than trueborn children.{{Ref|AGOT|5}}{{Ref|AGOT|26}} Even after being legitimized, bastards will usually have considerable difficulty in removing the stigma of having been bastard-born.{{Ref|TSS}}
In the series, it is not unexpected for noblemen to have bastard children, however, it is not typical for a noble to bring his bastards home and raise them with his own children. It's more usually expected that he will see to the child's well-being to some degree. A noblly born wife has right to take insult at her hsuband's bastards being introduced into her household and being commensurate rank with her legally born children.
 
  
====Rights of Inheritance====
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Nonetheless, a bastard might rise high. Male bastards may study at the [[Citadel]] and become a [[maester]] (e.g., [[Walys]], a former maester of [[Winterfell]]{{Ref|ADWD|37}}) Female bastards are allowed to join the [[Faith of the Seven]] and become [[septa]]s, like [[Alysanne (daughter of Aegon IV)|Alysanne]], [[Lily]], [[Willow (daughter of Aegon IV)|Willow]], and [[Rosey (daughter of Aegon IV)|Rosey]], the four bastard daughters of King [[Aegon IV Targaryen]] by his second mistress, [[Megette]].{{Ref|TWOIAF| The Targaryen Kings: Aegon IV}} Potentially, this might mean that male bastards could become [[septon]]s.
The baseborn have few rights under the law and custom, when it comes to claims. A bastard may inherit if the father has no other trueborn children nor any other likely kin to follow him. Additionally, a bastard can inherit if he is legitimized by a royal decree. However, a legitamised bastard falls in the order of succession at the end, after all true-born offspring, including daughters.
 
  
However, Any man can be knighted, even a bastard.
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Bastards can also be knighted, and may even be appointed to the [[Kingsguard]] (e.g., [[Mervyn Flowers]]{{Ref|TWOIAF| The Targaryen Kings: Aegon III}}). Bastards can even rise to become the [[Lord Commander of the Kingsguard]], as [[Robert Flowers]] and [[Addison Hill]] did.{{ref|AFFC|16}} In the [[Night's Watch]], any man may rise to command, no matter the circumstance of his birth. Bastards who have risen to positions of command include [[Cotter Pyke]],{{ref|agot|19}} who is the commander at [[Eastwatch-by-the-Sea]], and [[Robin Hill]]{{Ref|ASOS|55}} and [[Jon Snow]],{{Ref|ASOS|79}} who both became [[Lord Commander of the Night's Watch|Lord Commander]]s.
  
====Social Status====
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Another example is the origin of [[House Justman]]. This house was founded by [[Benedict Rivers]], a bastard son descending of both [[House Blackwood]] and [[House Bracken]]. House Justman ruled the [[riverlands]] for three centuries before being eventually wiped out during a war against the [[ironborn]] and King [[Qhored Hoare]].{{Ref|TWOIAF| The Riverlands}}
It is rude to pry into the origins of a man's natural children. Men say that bastards are born from lust and lies, and so their nature is wanton and treacherous.
 
  
====Surnames====
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==Surnames==
Each of the Seven Kingdoms have bastard surnames decreed by custom.
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Each of the nine constituent regions of the Seven Kingdoms have bastard surnames decreed by [[customs|custom]], not law.<ref name=SF>[http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/Entry/2999/ SF, Targaryens, Valyria, Sansa, Martells, and more (June 26, 2001)]</ref> Bastards with a high-born parent are given these surnames to hold them apart from their parent's houses.<ref name=SF/> The parents may give a bastard a different surname if they wish, e.g. [[Tyrion Tanner]]{{Ref|ADWD|Appendix}}, or no name at all.<ref name=SF/> Bastard children of two people of the [[smallfolk]] are not given a distinctive surname.<ref name=SF/> A bastard might also chose a surname for himself. [[Daemon Waters]] took the surname [[House Blackfyre|Blackfyre]] at the age of twelve, after having been knighted and having received lands and the [[Valyrian steel]] sword [[Blackfyre|of the same name]] from his father, King [[Aegon IV Targaryen]].{{Ref|TWOIAF| The Targaryen Kings: Aegon IV}}
  
* '''Flowers''' is the bastard name in [[The Reach|the Reach]]
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The surname a bastard received appears to be connected to the location the child is raised, though this is not a consistent rule. Because of this, bastards who are half-siblings might have different surnames. For example, King [[Robert I Baratheon]]'s eldest bastard, born and raised in the Vale, is called [[Mya Stone|Mya ''Stone'']], while his bastard from the stormlands (fathered on a noblewoman from the [[Reach]]) is called [[Edric Storm|Edric ''Storm'']]. However, whilst [[Aegor Rivers]] was raised at [[Stone Hedge]] in the [[riverlands]], his half-brother [[Brynden Rivers|Brynden]] was also called ''Rivers'', despite having lived at least the first few years of his life with his mother at [[King's Landing]] in the [[crownlands]].{{Ref|TWOIAF| The Targaryen Kings: Aegon IV}} Prince [[Oberyn Martell]]'s eight bastard daughters all have the surname ''Sand'', even though the eldest, [[Obara Sand|Obara]], lived in [[Oldtown]] in the [[Reach]] during the earlier years of her life,{{Ref|AFFC|2}} and her sister [[Nymeria|Nymeria]] was born in [[Volantis]], across the [[narrow sea]].{{Ref|AWOIAF| Nymeria Sand}}
* '''Hill''' is the bastard name for the [[The Westerlands|westerlands]]
 
* '''Rivers''' is the bastard name in the [[The Riverlands|riverlands]]  
 
* '''Pyke''' is the bastard name on the [[The Iron Islands|Iron Islands]]
 
* '''Sand''' is the bastard name of [[Dorne]]  
 
* '''Snow''' is the surname for bastards north of the Neck, generally referred to as [[The North|the North]]  
 
* '''Stone''' is the bastard name in [The Vale|the Vale]]
 
* '''Storm''' is the bastard name in the [[The Stornlands|stormlands]] (II: 119)
 
* '''Waters''' is the bastard name of [[Dragonstone]] (III: 929)
 
  
Additionally, '''Blackfyre''' was a name carried by a bastard of Aegon IV and his sons, but does not seem to have been a bastard name commonly used for Targaryen for Targaryen bastards
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Most legitimate offspring of a bastard decides to keep the bastard surname.<ref name=SF/> If two bastards from two different regions (i.e. with two different surnames) marry, the children will most likely take their father's surname.<ref>[[So Spake Martin]]: [http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/Entry/Bastards_Offspring Bastard's Offspring (January 20, 1999)]</ref> Some later legitimate offspring of bastards might change their surname to demonstrate their legitimate nature, and remove the bastard-born taint.<ref name=SF/> One such an example is the son of [[Jon Waters]]. Jon Waters was the bastard son of Princess [[Elaena Targaryen]] and Lord [[Alyn Velaryon]].{{Ref|TWOIAF| The Targaryen Kings: Baelor I}}{{Ref|AFFC|8}} His trueborn son changed his name from ''"Waters"'' to ''"[[House Longwaters|Longwaters]]"'' in an attempt to remove the taint of bastardy,{{Ref|AFFC|8}} and to demonstrate he was of legitimate birth himself.<ref name=SF/>
  
Bastards whose parents are both of the nobility are not considered baseborn
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{| class="wikitable" width=50%i
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|-
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! Region
 +
! Surname
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! Example
 +
|-
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| [[Crownlands]] || Waters{{Ref|AFFC|34}}{{Ref|AFFC|12}} || [[Aurane Waters]]
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|-
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| [[Dorne]] || Sand{{Ref|ASOS|38}} || [[Ellaria Sand]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Iron Islands]] || Pyke{{Ref|AGOT|19}}{{Ref|ASOS|70}} || [[Cotter Pyke]]
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|-
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| [[North]] || Snow{{Ref|agot|2}}{{Ref|AGOT|34}} || [[Jon Snow]]
 +
|-
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| [[Reach]] || Flowers{{Ref|AGOT|34}} || [[Robert Flowers]]
 +
|-
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| [[Riverlands]] || Rivers{{Ref|AGOT|59}} || [[Walder Rivers]]
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|-
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| [[Stormlands]] || Storm{{Ref|ACOK|10}} || [[Rolland Storm]]
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|-
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| [[Vale of Arryn]] || Stone{{Ref|AGOT|34}} || [[Mya Stone]]
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|-
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| [[Westerlands]] || Hill{{Ref|ASOS|Prologue}} || [[Joy Hill]]
 +
|}
  
 +
==Acknowledgement==
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[[File:Natascha RoeoesliJonSnowGhost.jpg|[[Jon Snow]], the acknowledged bastard son of [[Eddard Stark]] - by Natascha Roeoesli. © Fantasy Flight Games|thumb|right|400px]]
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At any point, the biological father of a bastard may acknowledge him and bring him formally into his house. King [[Robert I Baratheon]] acknowledged [[Edric Storm]] at his birth, although the boy was raised at [[Storm's End]].{{ref|ACOK|10}} Lord [[Roose Bolton]] brought his bastard son, [[Ramsay Snow]], to the [[Dreadfort]] following the death of his only trueborn son, [[Domeric Bolton|Domeric]], albeit without acknowledging him.{{ref|ACOK|16}}{{ref|AWOIAF| Ramsay Snow}} An acknowledged bastard might even be considered to inherit a seat when no direct heirs can be found.{{ref|ACOK|16}}
  
See: [http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/Concordance/Section/2.3.2./|The Citadel: Concordance -2.3.2. Bastards]
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Prince [[Oberyn Martell]] has fathered [[Sand Snakes|eight bastard daughters]] on five different mothers.{{Ref|AFFC|Appendix}} His children are raised at the court of [[Sunspear]], where several are close to the heir of Prince [[Doran Martell]], Princess [[Arianne Martell|Arianne]].{{Ref|AFFC|13}}{{Ref|AFFC|22}} The Dornish are not greatly concerned about whether or not a child is trueborn or bastard-born, especially not if the child born to a paramour.{{Ref|TWOIAF| Dorne: Queer Customs of the South}} While Prince Oberyn's four elder daughters were born of mothers of variable social stations - [[Obara Sand|Obara]]'s mother was a whore, [[Nymeria Sand|Nymeria]]'s mother a [[Volantis|Volantenese]] noblewoman, [[Tyene Sand|Tyene]]'s mother a septa and [[Sarella Sand|Sarella]]'s mother a trader captain from the [[Summer Islands]] - they appear to be treated no differently from [[Elia Sand|Elia]], [[Obella Sand|Obella]], [[Dorea Sand|Dorea]], and [[Loreza Sand|Loreza]], the children he fathered on his recognized paramour, [[Ellaria Sand]].{{Ref|AFFC|Appendix}}{{Ref|AFFC|13}}{{Ref|AFFC|40}}
  
[[Category:Bastards]]
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===Legitimization===
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[[File:Marc Simonetti Bittersteel.jpg|[[Aegor Rivers]], a [[Great Bastard]], fathered by [[Aegon IV Targaryen]] - by Marc Simonetti © |thumb|400px|right]]
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Besides acknowledging bastards, they can also be legitimized. This power is reserved to monarchs alone.{{Ref|ASOS|45}}<ref>[[So Spake Martin]]: [http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/Entry/Jon_Snow Jon Snow (August 6, 2000)]</ref> Once a bastard is legitimized, this cannot be undone.{{Ref|aSoS|45}}
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Queen [[Rhaenyra Targaryen]] legitimized the brothers [[Addam Velaryon|Addam]] and [[Alyn Velaryon|Alyn of Hull]] as heirs of Lord [[Corlys Velaryon]].{{ref|TPATQ}} King [[Aegon IV Targaryen]] famously legitimized all of his bastards on his deathbed, both those born by highborn mothers, who were also known as the [[Great Bastards]], and those who had been baseborn.{{ref|tss}}{{Ref|TWOIAF| The Targaryen Kings: Aegon IV}} This act by King Aegon eventually played a large role in [[Blackfyre Pretenders|several wars]] fought over the [[Iron Throne]] between the trueborn descendants of King Aegon and his bastard-born offspring.{{Ref|asos|45}} Following his role in the [[War of the Five Kings]], the bastard-born son of Lord [[Roose Bolton]], [[Ramsay Snow]], is legitimized in order to marry a [[Arya Stark|highborn bride]].{{Ref|ASOS|72}}
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The children of Lord [[Lyonel Hightower]] and Lady [[Samantha Tarly]] were rendered legitimate once a new [[High Septon]] allowed the couple to marry.<ref>[https://scifi.stackexchange.com/questions/169198/which-bastards-in-westeros-were-automatically-legitimized-once-their-parents-mar Which bastards in Westeros were automatically legitimized once their parents married? (September 8, 2017)]</ref>{{ref|fab|Aftermath - The Hour of the Wolf}}
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==Rights of Inheritance==
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:{{See also|Inheritance}}
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The bastard-born have few rights under [[Law and justice|law]] and [[customs|custom]].{{Ref|AGOT|30}} When it comes to rights of inheritance, there are no clear cut laws.<ref name=hornwoods>[[So Spake Martin]]: [http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/Entry/The_Hornwood_Inheritance_and_the_Whents The Hornwood Inheritance and the Whents (November 2, 1999)]</ref>
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A bastard may inherit if the father has no other trueborn children nor any other direct heirs to follow him. For example, in {{Date|299}}, following the deaths of Lord [[Halys Hornwood]] and his trueborn son, [[Daryn Hornwood|Daryn]], Halys's natural son [[Larence Snow]] is considered as a potential heir by [[House Hornwood]]s overlords, [[House Stark]].{{Ref|ACOK|16}} However, in order to inherit or be installed as an heir, the bastard-born child will first have to be legitimized by a royal decree.{{Ref|ASOS|45}}
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It is unclear whether a legitimized bastard would be placed in the succession according to birth order, or would be placed at the end, after the trueborn children.<ref name=hornwoods/>
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===Coat of Arms===
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Bastards do not have the right to use the arms of the highborn families from which they descend.{{Ref|AGOT|7}} Recognized bastards who take arms (noble born, knighted, etc.) often, but not always, take the [[Heraldry|coat of arms]] of their fathers with the colors reversed.{{Ref|TSS}} A bend sinister is sometimes added, as exemplified by Ser [[Walder Rivers]]'s sigil.{{Ref|aFfC|38}} A bastard that wants to emphasize his affiliation and minimize his own bastardy may decide to use the same sigil as his father, as did [[Glendon Flowers]],{{Ref|TMK}} perhaps illegally.{{Ref|THK}}{{Ref|AGOT|7}} Other bastards might choose to combine multiple sigils, as [[Aegor Rivers]] did.<ref name=greatbastards>[[So Spake Martin]]: [http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/Entry/The_Great_Bastards/ (December 26, 2005)]</ref>
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 +
Several examples:
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{| cellspacing="5" border="0" style="text-align:left;"
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| [[File:House Targaryen.svg|75px|''House Targaryen'']]
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| [[File:House Blackfyre.svg|75px|''House Blackfyre'']]
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|Arms of [[House Blackfyre]] (right), founded by [[Daemon I Blackfyre]], a bastard descending from [[House Targaryen]], has the colors of the Targaryen sigil (left) reversed.{{ref|TSS}}
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|}
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{| cellspacing="5" border="0" style="text-align:left;"
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| [[File:House Frey.svg|75px|''House Frey'']]
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| [[File:House Frey (Walder Rivers).svg|75px|'' personal arms of Walder Rivers'']]
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|The personal arms of [[Walder Rivers]] (right), bastard son of Lord [[Walder Frey]], has the colors of the sigil of [[House Frey]] (left) reversed and a red bend sinister added.{{ref|affc|38}}
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|}
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{| cellspacing="5" border="0" style="text-align:left;"
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| [[File:House Blackfyre.svg|75px|''House Blackfyre'']]
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| [[File:House Bracken.svg|75px|''House Bracken'']]
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| [[File:Bittersteel.svg|75px|''personal arms of Aegor Rivers'']]
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|The coat of arms of [[Aegor Rivers]] (right), a bastard son of King [[Aegon IV Targaryen]]. He has combined the sigils of his mother's house, [[House Bracken]] (middle), and [[House Blackfyre]] (left).
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|}
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==Recent Events==
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===''A Game of Thrones''===
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Prince [[Joffrey Baratheon]] is believed by King [[Robert I Baratheon]] to be his trueborn son, and is therefore the heir to [[House Baratheon]] of [[King's Landing]], and heir to the [[Iron Throne]]. However, Lord [[Eddard Stark]] discovers that Joffrey, as well as his siblings [[Myrcella Baratheon|Myrcella]] and [[Tommen Baratheon|Tommen]], are actually the bastards of Queen [[Cersei Lannister]] and her twin brother, [[Jaime Lannister|Jaime]].{{Ref|AGOT|45}}
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===''A Clash of Kings''===
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The revelation of Joffrey's bastardy, as the product of adultery on the part of Queen [[Cersei Lannister]], causes Joffrey's claim to the Iron Throne to be disputed after Robert's death by Robert's eldest brother, [[Stannis Baratheon]].{{Ref|ACOK|Prologue}}
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===''A Storm of Swords''===
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[[Ramsay Snow]]'s official bastard status is removed by a royal decree, as a reward for the [[House Bolton|Boltons]] betraying the [[House Stark|Starks]] and bowing to the [[House Lannister|Lannisters]], and he becomes the heir of House Bolton.{{Ref|ASOS|72}}
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[[Robb Stark]], as [[King in the North]], plans to legitimize his bastard half-brother [[Jon Snow]] and proclaim him as his heir.{{Ref|ASOS|45}} Following Robb's death, [[Stannis Baratheon]], having proclaimed himself King of the Seven Kingdoms, also proposes to legitimize Snow and make him Lord of [[Winterfell]],{{Ref|ASOS|76}} but Jon declines Stannis's offer, electing to become [[Lord Commander of the Night's Watch]] instead.{{Ref|ASOS|79}}
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Having fled [[King's Landing]] with the aid of Lord [[Petyr Baelish]], [[Sansa Stark]] poses as his natural daughter, named Alayne Stone.{{Ref|ASOS|68}}
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===''A Feast for Crows''===
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[[Sansa Stark]] is still posing in the [[Vale]] as Alayne Stone, the bastard-born daughter of [[Petyr Baelish]].{{Ref|AFFC|10}}
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===''A Dance with Dragons''===
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[[Tyrion Lannister]] uses the name Hugor Hill while traveling through [[Essos]], pretending to be a bastard from [[Lannisport]].{{Ref|ADWD|8}}{{Ref|ADWD|14}}
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==Notable Bastards==
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:''See also'': [[:Category:Bastards|List of known bastards]]''
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'''Crownlands'''
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* Addam of Hull, legitimised as [[Addam Velaryon]], a dragonrider and heir to [[Driftmark]].
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* Alyn of Hull, legitimised as [[Alyn Velaryon]], an admiral and heir to Driftmark after Addam's death.
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*[[Tyrion Tanner]], the bastard son of [[Lollys Stokeworth]] and an unknown father, conceived in a riot at [[King's Landing]].
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* [[Aurane Waters]], better known as the Bastard of [[Driftmark]]. He was part of Queen [[Cersei Lannister|Cersei's]] small council as the grand admiral and [[master of ships]].
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* Ser [[Daemon I Blackfyre|Daemon Waters]], later known as Daemon I Blackfyre, was the recognized and legitimised son of King Aegon IV Targaryen and [[Daena Targaryen]]. Founder of [[House Blackfyre]].
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* [[Humfrey Waters]], the current Commander of the [[City Watch of King's Landing]].
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* Ser [[Marston Waters]], was a knight of Kings [[Aegon II Targaryen|Aegon II]]'s and [[Aegon III Targaryen|Aegon III]]'s [[Kingsguard]].
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* [[Gendry]], an unrecognized bastard of King [[Robert I Baratheon]]. Unaware of his heritage but is the spitting image of Robert when he was young.
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* [[Joffrey Baratheon|Joffrey]], [[Myrcella Baratheon|Myrcella]] and [[Tommen Baratheon]] are bastards conceived by Queen [[Cersei Lannister]] with her own twin brother, Ser [[Jaime Lannister|Jaime]], although they are commonly believed to be her legitimate children by King [[Robert I Baratheon]].
 +
 
 +
 
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'''Dorne'''
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*[[Ellaria Sand]], the bastard daughter of Lord [[Harmen Uller]]. She is also the paramour of Prince [[Oberyn Martell]].
 +
*The [[Sand Snakes]] is the collective name for the eight bastard daughters of Prince [[Oberyn Martell]], the Red Viper. They are, in order of age:
 +
**[[Obara Sand]], daughter of an [[Oldtown]] whore.
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**[[Nymeria Sand]], called Lady Nym, her mother was a noblewoman from [[Volantis]].
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**[[Tyene Sand]], daughter of a [[Faith of the Seven#Septa|septa]].
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**[[Sarella Sand]], daughter of a trader from the [[Summer Isles]].
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**[[Elia Sand]], called Lady Lance. The oldest daughter of Oberyn's paramour [[Ellaria Sand]], and granddaughter of Lord [[Harmen Uller]].
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**[[Obella Sand]], daughter of Ellaria Sand.
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**[[Dorea Sand]], daughter of Ellaria Sand.
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**[[Loreza Sand]], daughter of Ellaria Sand.
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* Ser [[Daemon Sand]], better known as the Bastard of [[Godsgrace]], is the bastard son of [[Ryon Allyrion]].
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 +
 
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'''Iron Islands'''
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* [[Cotter Pyke]], a member of the Night's Watch and the current Commander of [[Eastwatch-by-the-Sea]].
 +
* [[Wex Pyke]], the baseborn son of [[Sargon Botley]]; the squire of [[Theon Greyjoy]].
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 +
 
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'''North'''
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* [[Jon Snow]], the recognized bastard son of Lord [[Eddard Stark]] and 998th [[Lord Commander of the Night's Watch]].
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* [[Ramsay Snow|Ramsay Bolton]], formerly known as Ramsay Snow, the recognized and legitimised son of Lord [[Roose Bolton]]. Commonly known as the Bastard of Bolton or the Bastard of the [[Dreadfort]].
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* [[Larence Snow]], the son of Lord [[Halys Hornwood]].
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'''The Reach'''
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*[[Blackshield]], an identity assumed by the Bastard of Uplands.
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*[[Falia Flowers]], the bastard daughter of Lord [[Humfrey Hewett]].
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*Ser [[Franklyn Flowers]], also known as the Bastard of [[Cider Hall]], a knight in service to the [[Golden Company]].
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* [[Garrett Flowers]], the bastard son of [[Garth Tyrell]] the Gross. Garse's brother.
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*[[Garse Flowers]], the bastard son of Garth the Gross. Garrett's brother.
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*Ser [[Glendon Flowers]], mockingly referred to as the Knight of the Pussywillows, claimed to be the son of Ser [[Quentyn Ball]].
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*Ser [[Mervyn Flowers]], was the bastard brother of Lord [[Unwin Peake]] and a [[knight]] of King Aegon III's Kingsguard.
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*Ser [[Robert Flowers]], a former Lord Commander of the Kingsguard.
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*[[Jafer Flowers]], a ranger of the Night's Watch.
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*[[Tom Flowers]], also known as the Bastard of [[Bitterbridge]], a bastard of [[House Caswell]] who fought for the [[greens]] in the [[Dance of the Dragons]].
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*Maester [[Walys Flowers|Walys]], the bastard son of a [[House Hightower|Hightower]] girl and an [[archmaester]] of the [[Citadel]]. He served at [[Winterfell]] when Lord [[Rickard Stark]] was head of [[House Stark]].
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'''Riverlands'''
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* The [[Bastard of Harrenhal]], who was defeated by Ser [[Arlan of Pennytree]].{{ref|THK}}
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* Ser [[Addam Rivers]], claimed the title of [[river king]] or [[King of the Trident]].
 +
* Ser [[Aegor Rivers]], better known as Bittersteel, was the recognized and legitimized son of King [[Aegon IV Targaryen]] and [[Barba Bracken]]. Founder of the [[Golden Company]].
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* [[Alys Rivers]], was a bedmate of Prince [[Aemond Targaryen]].
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* Ser [[Benedict I Justman|Benedict Rivers]], later known as King Benedict I Justman, was a bastard from Houses [[House Blackwood|Blackwood]] and [[House Bracken|Bracken]]. Founder of [[House Justman]] and the first Justman [[King of the Trident]].
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* [[Brynden Rivers]], better known as Bloodraven, recognized and legitimized son of King Aegon IV Targaryen and [[Melissa Blackwood]]. Former [[Hand of the King]] and [[Lord Commander of the Night's Watch]].
 +
* [[Gwenys Rivers]], recognized and legitimized daughter of Aegon IV Targaryen and Melissa Blackwood.
 +
* [[Harry Rivers]], known as  the Bastard of Bracken, is the bastard son of Lord [[Jonos Bracken]].
 +
* [[Mya Rivers]], recognized and legitimized daughter of Aegon IV Targaryen and Melissa Blackwood.
 +
* [[Robb Rivers|Red Robb Rivers]], also known as the Bowman of [[Raventree]], a bastard of [[House Blackwood]].
 +
* Ser [[Samwell Rivers]], the bastard son of Lord [[Tommen Tully]].
 +
* Ser [[Tristan Rivers]], an exiled knight in service to the [[Golden Company]].
 +
* Ser [[Walder Rivers]], recognized eldest bastard son of Lord [[Walder Frey]].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''Stormlands'''
 +
*The [[Bastard of Blackhaven]], of [[House Dondarrion]], who fought and perished in the [[Last Storm]] during [[Aegon's Conquest]].
 +
*[[Cedrik Storm]], also known as the Bastard of [[Bronzegate]].
 +
*[[Edric Storm]], the acknowledged bastard son of King [[Robert I Baratheon]] and [[Delena Florent]].
 +
*Ser [[Rolland Storm]], better known as the Bastard of [[Nightsong]], is the baseborn son of Lord [[Bryen Caron]].
 +
*[[Ronald Storm]], the bastard son of Ser [[Ronnet Connington]].
 +
*King [[Ronard Storm]], called Ronard the Bastard, who usurped his [[Morden II Durrandon|half-brother's]] rule and ruled for a stable thirty years.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''Vale of Arryn'''
 +
* [[Mya Stone]], the eldest bastard of King [[Robert I Baratheon]]. While she is not officially recognized, she is somewhat openly known to be the king's baseborn daughter.
 +
* Ser [[Samwell Stone]], known as Strong Sam Stone, the master-at-arms at [[Runestone]].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''Westerlands'''
 +
* Ser [[Addison Hill]], also known as the Bastard of [[Cornfield]], a former [[Lord Commander of the Kingsguard]].
 +
* [[Joy Hill]], the recognized daughter of [[Gerion Lannister]].
 +
* "Sweet" [[Donnel Hill]], who claims to be a bastard of the Lannisters.
 +
* [[Lynora Hill]], the bastard daughter of [[Jason Lannister (son of Gerold)|Jason Lannister]] and a serving girl.
 +
* [[Robin Hill]], considered one of the worst Lord Commanders of the Night's Watch.
 +
* Ser [[Tyler Hill]], also known as the Bastard of [[Lannisport]], fought for the [[greens]] in the Dance of the Dragons.
 +
 
 +
==Quotes==
 +
{{Quote|[[Orys Baratheon]] was a baseborn half brother to Lord [[Aegon I Targaryen|Aegon]], it was whispered, and the [[Argilac Durrandon|Storm King]] would not dishonor [[Argella Durrandon|his daughter]] by giving her hand to a bastard. The very suggestion enraged him.{{Ref|TWOIAF| The Reign of the Dragons: The Conquest}}|writings of [[Gyldayn]]}}
 +
 
 +
{{Quote|The old [[High Septon]] told [[Maekar I Targaryen|my father]] that king's laws are one thing, and the laws of the gods another. Trueborn children are made in a marriage bed and blessed by [[Father (the Seven)|the Father]] and [[Mother (the Seven)|the Mother]], but bastards are born of lust and weakness, he said. King [[Aegon IV Targaryen|Aegon]] decreed that his bastards were not bastards, but he could not change their nature. The High Septon said all bastards are born to betrayal ...{{Ref|TSS}}|[[Aegon V Targaryen|Egg]] to [[Duncan the Tall|Duncan]]}}
 +
 
 +
{{quote|A bastard had to learn to notice things, to read the truth that people hid behind their eyes.{{ref|AGOT|5}}|thoughts of [[Jon Snow]]}}
 +
 
 +
{{Quote|Go away, I wanted only Freys up here, the [[Robb Stark|King in the North]] has no interest in base stock.{{Ref|asos|49}}|[[Walder Frey]] to little [[Walda Rivers (daughter of Aemon)|Walda Rivers]]}}
 +
 
 +
{{Quote|Bastard children were born from lust and lies, men said; their nature was wanton and treacherous. Once Jon had meant to prove them wrong, to show [[Eddard Stark|his lord father]] he could as good a true son as [[Robb Stark]].{{ref|asos|73}}|thoughts of [[Jon Snow]]}}
 +
 
 +
{{Quote|Well, [[Aerion Targaryen|Aerion Brightflame]] did not stay in [[Lys]] all his life, only a few years. He may have fathered a few [[bastard]]s there, which would mean [[Daenerys Targaryen|Dany]] has "relatives" of a sort in Lys... but they would be very distant relatives, from the wrong side of the blanket.<ref>[[So Spake Martin]]: [http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/Entry/Many_Questions/ Many Questions (October 14, 1998)]</ref>|[[George R. R. Martin]]}}
 +
 
 +
==References==
 +
{{References}}
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Bastards| ]]
 +
[[Category:Terms]]
 +
 
 +
[[es:Bastardía]]
 +
[[fr:Bâtard]]
 +
[[ru:Бастард]]

Latest revision as of 17:20, 29 June 2019

A bastard is a person whose parents are not married to each other.[1] A bastard can also be referred to as natural son or natural daughter.[2][3][4][5]

Social status

A bastard daughter of Prince Oberyn Martell - by Magali Villeneuve. © Fantasy Flight Games

A polite way of referring to someone who is bastard-born is referring to them as a "natural son" or "natural daughter".[2][3][4][5] Others might refer to a bastard simply as "bastard-born".[6][7][8] The term "baseborn"[9][10] is used to refer to a child of whom one parent is of the smallfolk.[1][9][10][11] A euphemism for being bastard-born is being "born on the wrong side of the blanket".[1]

It is not unexpected for noblemen to have bastard children,[12] though it is considered rude to pry into the origins of a man's bastards.[13] While it is not typical for a noble to bring his bastards home and raise them with his own children, it is usually expected that he will see to the child's well-being to some degree.[12] Some might chose to have their bastards fostered at the home of another lord,[14] while others might decide to raise their bastard at their own home, in the position of a servant (e.g. Falia Flowers).[15] A noble-born wife can take insult at her husband's bastards being introduced into her household and being commensurate in rank with her legally-born children.[12]

There is a certain stigma that comes from being born as a bastard. They are said to be born from lust, lies, and weakness,[16][13][17] and as such, they are said to be wanton and treacherous by nature.[16][13][17] Because of the stigma bastards have to deal with, they are said to grow up faster than trueborn children.[18][19] Even after being legitimized, bastards will usually have considerable difficulty in removing the stigma of having been bastard-born.[17]

Nonetheless, a bastard might rise high. Male bastards may study at the Citadel and become a maester (e.g., Walys, a former maester of Winterfell[20]) Female bastards are allowed to join the Faith of the Seven and become septas, like Alysanne, Lily, Willow, and Rosey, the four bastard daughters of King Aegon IV Targaryen by his second mistress, Megette.[21] Potentially, this might mean that male bastards could become septons.

Bastards can also be knighted, and may even be appointed to the Kingsguard (e.g., Mervyn Flowers[22]). Bastards can even rise to become the Lord Commander of the Kingsguard, as Robert Flowers and Addison Hill did.[23] In the Night's Watch, any man may rise to command, no matter the circumstance of his birth. Bastards who have risen to positions of command include Cotter Pyke,[9] who is the commander at Eastwatch-by-the-Sea, and Robin Hill[16] and Jon Snow,[24] who both became Lord Commanders.

Another example is the origin of House Justman. This house was founded by Benedict Rivers, a bastard son descending of both House Blackwood and House Bracken. House Justman ruled the riverlands for three centuries before being eventually wiped out during a war against the ironborn and King Qhored Hoare.[25]

Surnames

Each of the nine constituent regions of the Seven Kingdoms have bastard surnames decreed by custom, not law.[26] Bastards with a high-born parent are given these surnames to hold them apart from their parent's houses.[26] The parents may give a bastard a different surname if they wish, e.g. Tyrion Tanner[27], or no name at all.[26] Bastard children of two people of the smallfolk are not given a distinctive surname.[26] A bastard might also chose a surname for himself. Daemon Waters took the surname Blackfyre at the age of twelve, after having been knighted and having received lands and the Valyrian steel sword of the same name from his father, King Aegon IV Targaryen.[21]

The surname a bastard received appears to be connected to the location the child is raised, though this is not a consistent rule. Because of this, bastards who are half-siblings might have different surnames. For example, King Robert I Baratheon's eldest bastard, born and raised in the Vale, is called Mya Stone, while his bastard from the stormlands (fathered on a noblewoman from the Reach) is called Edric Storm. However, whilst Aegor Rivers was raised at Stone Hedge in the riverlands, his half-brother Brynden was also called Rivers, despite having lived at least the first few years of his life with his mother at King's Landing in the crownlands.[21] Prince Oberyn Martell's eight bastard daughters all have the surname Sand, even though the eldest, Obara, lived in Oldtown in the Reach during the earlier years of her life,[28] and her sister Nymeria was born in Volantis, across the narrow sea.[29]

Most legitimate offspring of a bastard decides to keep the bastard surname.[26] If two bastards from two different regions (i.e. with two different surnames) marry, the children will most likely take their father's surname.[30] Some later legitimate offspring of bastards might change their surname to demonstrate their legitimate nature, and remove the bastard-born taint.[26] One such an example is the son of Jon Waters. Jon Waters was the bastard son of Princess Elaena Targaryen and Lord Alyn Velaryon.[31][32] His trueborn son changed his name from "Waters" to "Longwaters" in an attempt to remove the taint of bastardy,[32] and to demonstrate he was of legitimate birth himself.[26]

Region Surname Example
Crownlands Waters[33][34] Aurane Waters
Dorne Sand[2] Ellaria Sand
Iron Islands Pyke[9][35] Cotter Pyke
North Snow[36][37] Jon Snow
Reach Flowers[37] Robert Flowers
Riverlands Rivers[38] Walder Rivers
Stormlands Storm[39] Rolland Storm
Vale of Arryn Stone[37] Mya Stone
Westerlands Hill[40] Joy Hill

Acknowledgement

Jon Snow, the acknowledged bastard son of Eddard Stark - by Natascha Roeoesli. © Fantasy Flight Games

At any point, the biological father of a bastard may acknowledge him and bring him formally into his house. King Robert I Baratheon acknowledged Edric Storm at his birth, although the boy was raised at Storm's End.[39] Lord Roose Bolton brought his bastard son, Ramsay Snow, to the Dreadfort following the death of his only trueborn son, Domeric, albeit without acknowledging him.[14][41] An acknowledged bastard might even be considered to inherit a seat when no direct heirs can be found.[14]

Prince Oberyn Martell has fathered eight bastard daughters on five different mothers.[42] His children are raised at the court of Sunspear, where several are close to the heir of Prince Doran Martell, Princess Arianne.[43][44] The Dornish are not greatly concerned about whether or not a child is trueborn or bastard-born, especially not if the child born to a paramour.[45] While Prince Oberyn's four elder daughters were born of mothers of variable social stations - Obara's mother was a whore, Nymeria's mother a Volantenese noblewoman, Tyene's mother a septa and Sarella's mother a trader captain from the Summer Islands - they appear to be treated no differently from Elia, Obella, Dorea, and Loreza, the children he fathered on his recognized paramour, Ellaria Sand.[42][43][46]

Legitimization

Aegor Rivers, a Great Bastard, fathered by Aegon IV Targaryen - by Marc Simonetti ©

Besides acknowledging bastards, they can also be legitimized. This power is reserved to monarchs alone.[47][48] Once a bastard is legitimized, this cannot be undone.[47]

Queen Rhaenyra Targaryen legitimized the brothers Addam and Alyn of Hull as heirs of Lord Corlys Velaryon.[49] King Aegon IV Targaryen famously legitimized all of his bastards on his deathbed, both those born by highborn mothers, who were also known as the Great Bastards, and those who had been baseborn.[17][21] This act by King Aegon eventually played a large role in several wars fought over the Iron Throne between the trueborn descendants of King Aegon and his bastard-born offspring.[47] Following his role in the War of the Five Kings, the bastard-born son of Lord Roose Bolton, Ramsay Snow, is legitimized in order to marry a highborn bride.[50]

The children of Lord Lyonel Hightower and Lady Samantha Tarly were rendered legitimate once a new High Septon allowed the couple to marry.[51][52]

Rights of Inheritance

The bastard-born have few rights under law and custom.[10] When it comes to rights of inheritance, there are no clear cut laws.[53]

A bastard may inherit if the father has no other trueborn children nor any other direct heirs to follow him. For example, in 299 AC, following the deaths of Lord Halys Hornwood and his trueborn son, Daryn, Halys's natural son Larence Snow is considered as a potential heir by House Hornwoods overlords, House Stark.[14] However, in order to inherit or be installed as an heir, the bastard-born child will first have to be legitimized by a royal decree.[47]

It is unclear whether a legitimized bastard would be placed in the succession according to birth order, or would be placed at the end, after the trueborn children.[53]

Coat of Arms

Bastards do not have the right to use the arms of the highborn families from which they descend.[54] Recognized bastards who take arms (noble born, knighted, etc.) often, but not always, take the coat of arms of their fathers with the colors reversed.[17] A bend sinister is sometimes added, as exemplified by Ser Walder Rivers's sigil.[55] A bastard that wants to emphasize his affiliation and minimize his own bastardy may decide to use the same sigil as his father, as did Glendon Flowers,[1] perhaps illegally.[56][54] Other bastards might choose to combine multiple sigils, as Aegor Rivers did.[57]

Several examples:

House Targaryen House Blackfyre Arms of House Blackfyre (right), founded by Daemon I Blackfyre, a bastard descending from House Targaryen, has the colors of the Targaryen sigil (left) reversed.[17]
House Frey  personal arms of Walder Rivers The personal arms of Walder Rivers (right), bastard son of Lord Walder Frey, has the colors of the sigil of House Frey (left) reversed and a red bend sinister added.[55]
House Blackfyre House Bracken personal arms of Aegor Rivers The coat of arms of Aegor Rivers (right), a bastard son of King Aegon IV Targaryen. He has combined the sigils of his mother's house, House Bracken (middle), and House Blackfyre (left).

Recent Events

A Game of Thrones

Prince Joffrey Baratheon is believed by King Robert I Baratheon to be his trueborn son, and is therefore the heir to House Baratheon of King's Landing, and heir to the Iron Throne. However, Lord Eddard Stark discovers that Joffrey, as well as his siblings Myrcella and Tommen, are actually the bastards of Queen Cersei Lannister and her twin brother, Jaime.[58]

A Clash of Kings

The revelation of Joffrey's bastardy, as the product of adultery on the part of Queen Cersei Lannister, causes Joffrey's claim to the Iron Throne to be disputed after Robert's death by Robert's eldest brother, Stannis Baratheon.[59]

A Storm of Swords

Ramsay Snow's official bastard status is removed by a royal decree, as a reward for the Boltons betraying the Starks and bowing to the Lannisters, and he becomes the heir of House Bolton.[50]

Robb Stark, as King in the North, plans to legitimize his bastard half-brother Jon Snow and proclaim him as his heir.[47] Following Robb's death, Stannis Baratheon, having proclaimed himself King of the Seven Kingdoms, also proposes to legitimize Snow and make him Lord of Winterfell,[60] but Jon declines Stannis's offer, electing to become Lord Commander of the Night's Watch instead.[24]

Having fled King's Landing with the aid of Lord Petyr Baelish, Sansa Stark poses as his natural daughter, named Alayne Stone.[4]

A Feast for Crows

Sansa Stark is still posing in the Vale as Alayne Stone, the bastard-born daughter of Petyr Baelish.[61]

A Dance with Dragons

Tyrion Lannister uses the name Hugor Hill while traveling through Essos, pretending to be a bastard from Lannisport.[62][63]

Notable Bastards

See also: List of known bastards

Crownlands


Dorne


Iron Islands


North


The Reach


Riverlands


Stormlands


Vale of Arryn


Westerlands

Quotes

Orys Baratheon was a baseborn half brother to Lord Aegon, it was whispered, and the Storm King would not dishonor his daughter by giving her hand to a bastard. The very suggestion enraged him.[64]

—writings of Gyldayn

The old High Septon told my father that king's laws are one thing, and the laws of the gods another. Trueborn children are made in a marriage bed and blessed by the Father and the Mother, but bastards are born of lust and weakness, he said. King Aegon decreed that his bastards were not bastards, but he could not change their nature. The High Septon said all bastards are born to betrayal ...[17]

Egg to Duncan

A bastard had to learn to notice things, to read the truth that people hid behind their eyes.[18]

—thoughts of Jon Snow

Go away, I wanted only Freys up here, the King in the North has no interest in base stock.[65]

Bastard children were born from lust and lies, men said; their nature was wanton and treacherous. Once Jon had meant to prove them wrong, to show his lord father he could as good a true son as Robb Stark.[13]

—thoughts of Jon Snow

Well, Aerion Brightflame did not stay in Lys all his life, only a few years. He may have fathered a few bastards there, which would mean Dany has "relatives" of a sort in Lys... but they would be very distant relatives, from the wrong side of the blanket.[66]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 The Mystery Knight.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 38, Tyrion V.
  3. 3.0 3.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 53, Tyrion VI.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 68, Sansa VI.
  5. 5.0 5.1 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 21, The Queenmaker.
  6. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 15, Jon II.
  7. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 36, Davos IV.
  8. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 48, Jon VI.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 19, Jon III.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 30, Eddard VII.
  11. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 35, Eddard IX.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 6, Catelyn II.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 73, Jon X.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 16, Bran II.
  15. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 29, The Reaver.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 55, Jon VII.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 The Sworn Sword.
  18. 18.0 18.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 5, Jon I.
  19. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 26, Jon IV.
  20. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 37, The Prince of Winterfell.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aegon IV.
  22. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aegon III.
  23. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 16, Jaime II.
  24. 24.0 24.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 79, Jon XII.
  25. The World of Ice & Fire, The Riverlands.
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.5 26.6 SF, Targaryens, Valyria, Sansa, Martells, and more (June 26, 2001)
  27. A Dance with Dragons, Appendix.
  28. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 2, The Captain Of Guards.
  29. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Nymeria Sand.
  30. So Spake Martin: Bastard's Offspring (January 20, 1999)
  31. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Baelor I.
  32. 32.0 32.1 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 8, Jaime I.
  33. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 34, Cat Of The Canals.
  34. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 12, Cersei III.
  35. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 70, Tyrion X.
  36. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 2, Catelyn I.
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 34, Catelyn VI.
  38. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 59, Catelyn IX.
  39. 39.0 39.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 10, Davos I.
  40. A Storm of Swords, Prologue.
  41. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Ramsay Snow.
  42. 42.0 42.1 A Feast for Crows, Appendix.
  43. 43.0 43.1 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 13, The Soiled Knight.
  44. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 22, Arya II.
  45. The World of Ice & Fire, Dorne: Queer Customs of the South.
  46. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 40, Princess In The Tower.
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 47.3 47.4 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 45, Catelyn V.
  48. So Spake Martin: Jon Snow (August 6, 2000)
  49. The Princess and the Queen.
  50. 50.0 50.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 72, Jaime IX.
  51. Which bastards in Westeros were automatically legitimized once their parents married? (September 8, 2017)
  52. Fire & Blood, Aftermath - The Hour of the Wolf.
  53. 53.0 53.1 So Spake Martin: The Hornwood Inheritance and the Whents (November 2, 1999)
  54. 54.0 54.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 7, Arya I.
  55. 55.0 55.1 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 38, Jaime VI.
  56. 56.0 56.1 The Hedge Knight.
  57. So Spake Martin: (December 26, 2005)
  58. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 45, Eddard XII.
  59. A Clash of Kings, Prologue.
  60. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 76, Jon XI.
  61. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 10, Sansa I.
  62. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 8, Tyrion III.
  63. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 14, Tyrion IV.
  64. The World of Ice & Fire, The Reign of the Dragons: The Conquest.
  65. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 49, Catelyn VI.
  66. So Spake Martin: Many Questions (October 14, 1998)