Timeline of major events

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Timeline of major events, attempts to lay out the major events through out the history of Westeros and Essos, based on dates and information given in the novels and supporting material. See also: a thorough listing of events after Aegon's Landing.

According to tradition, the known history of Westeros extends back over 12,500 years. However, the oldest histories in Westeros were only written after the Andals came to Westeros, because the First Men only used runes for carving on stone. Everything written about the Age of Heroes, the Dawn Age, and the Long Night originates from stories written down by septons thousands of years later. The accuracy of the legends and myths that recount much of this history is openly questioned by the maesters of the Citadel, amongst others.


All dates are in relation to the Landing of Aegon the Conqueror, using negative numbers for events before Aegon's Landing. Note, that 'ca' is an abbreviation for the Latin word 'circa', meaning around, or approximately.

The Dawn Age

Prehistory Before the coming of men, Westeros is inhabited by mysterious diminutive humanoid creatures known as the Children of the Forest, giants and other magical creatures.
ca.-12,000 The First Men, a human ethnic group, invades Westeros across the Arm of Dorne, bearing weapons of bronze, leather shields, and horses. The Children of the Forest used magic to raise the seas and sweep away the land, shattering the Arm of Dorne and, thus, creating the island chain known as the Stepstones. Their magic wasn't enough to overcome the more numerous, larger, stronger, and more technologically advanced First Men. Consequentially the First Men gradually took control of Westeros.
ca.-10,000 Signing of the Pact: After years of warfare, the First Men and Children of the Forest agree to a truce, giving the First Men control of the open lands and coastlines and the Children of the Forest the interiors and deep forests. In time, the First Men adopt the worship of the Old Gods of the Forest.

The Age of Heroes

ca.-10,000 After the signing of the pact, came a time of peace and prosperity, the First Men set aside many of their cultural differences and embraced many of the ways of the children of the forest. Many noble houses of Westeros trace their family roots to this time.
ca.-8,000 The Long Night: In this time night seemed to last for a generation and the coldest winter descends on Westeros. Under the cover of darkness, the Others invade Westeros from the uttermost north, killing and raising up the dead to be their servants in unlife and nearly destroy all men in Westeros. The Long Night came to an end following the Battle of the Dawn, after the Children and the First Men rise united to defeat the Others, with dragonglass weapons, pushing them back into the frozen reaches of the Far North. They were led by a great hero, who in an eastern tradition is named Azor Ahai, and wields a great sword of fire, Lightbringer.

Founding of the Wall: With the Others defeated, legend tells that Bran the Builder, with the aid of the giants, First Men, and, perhaps, the children of the forest, raised up the Wall, in the north. The Wall is a giant fortification of ice and magic, to shelter the realms of men from the menaces of the north. The Sworn Brotherhood of the Night's Watch is created to man and guard it.

It's said that the castle of Storm's End is built in the south, by Bran the Builder who also constructs Winterfell and becomes the first King In The North.

The Night's King: Not long after the Wall was complete, the thirteenth Lord Commander of the Night's Watch is seduced by a Wight woman from beyond the Wall and becomes the Night's King, rising in rebellion, with the Watch as his personal army. The Starks in Winterfell and the King Beyond the Wall, Joramun, join forces to defeat the Night's King and restore honour to the Watch. This is the same Joramun who also finds the Horn of Winter, which it is said he uses to awaken giants from the earth.

The Andal Invasion

ca.-6,000 Faith of the Seven spread in the Hills of Andalos on the Essos, the eastern continent. According to Andal legend, it's there that their god first appeared to them, guiding their into the exodus to the westeros.

The Andal Invasion: The Andals invade Westeros through the Arm of Dorne, with their weapons of steel and their new religion of the the Seven. They fight both the First Men and the children of the forest were their allies, sweeping the land much as the First Men did thousands of years before and finally extinguishing the latter everywhere south of the Wall. After centuries of fighting, the Andals establish six kingdoms in the south, while the north remains in the hands of the First Men, due in large part to the strategically located fortress of Moat Cailin resisting multiple attempts to take it and thereafter serving as the door between North and South.

Age of Valyria

ca.-5,000 Rise of Valyrian Freehold: once a minor civilization populated by shepherds, Valyrians rose to greatness by taming the dragons, discovered lairing in the Fourteen Fires in the Valyrian Peninsula; With their Dragons and Magic they began expanding their influence.

Conquest of Ghis: Ghiscar was the greatest empire of the eastern continent. Five times, Ghiscari troops marched on the Freehold, trying to subdue it and its dragons and five times they were defeated. Until eventually the Freehold struck back, shuttering Ghiscar and utterly destroying it's capital Old Ghis, taking over the territories surrounding the Slaver's Bay.

ca.-700 The Rhoynar Invasion: The Valyrian Freehold's slow westward expansion brings it into conflict with the Rhoynish cities along the great River Rhoyne, a vast waterway. Prince Garin the Great raises an army a quarter-million strong to oppose the Valyrians, but fails utterly.

Rhoynar evacuation, Nymeria, princess of a Rhoynish city, evacuates survivors of Garin's war, women, and children in ten thousand ships that cross the narrow sea and land in Dorne. Winning an alliance with Lord Mors Martell, the Rhoynar unify the fractious land under the rule of Sunspear and establish House Martell as the ruling house of Dorne. Mors adopts the Rhoynish title 'Prince' rather than 'King'. The Rhoynar bring customs such as equal primogeniture, but these are not adopted outside of Dorne. The unification of Dorne under Nymeria and Mors leads to new conflicts with the kingdoms of the Reach and the stormlands, expressed through raids, skirmishes, and the occasional wars over the centuries.

ca.-500 The Valyrian Freehold conquers much of what is now the area of the southern Free Cities. A religious sect, the Moonsingers, lead many thousands of refugees north to a remote northern lagoon protected by encircling mountains and mists, and there found the Secret City of Braavos. They later build the Titan of Braavos, a great statue which also serves as defensive fortification.
ca.-200 The Valyrian Freehold annexes the island of Dragonstone in the narrow sea between the western cities and Westeros. A Valyrian noble family, the Targaryens, take control of the island.
ca.-100 The Doom of Valyria: The nature of the Doom is unclear, save that heavy volcanic activity is involved, likelly involving the Fourteen Fires, the mountains where the dragons were first discovered. The Valyrian Peninsula is shattered and the city of Valyria is laid waste, although not completely destroyed. The dragons of Valyria are virtually wiped out and the Valyrian Freehold crumbles apart, its various city states broke apart asserting their independence, surviving to this day as the Free Cities and the cities of Slaver's Bay.

Braavos reveals itself to the other cities, eventually becoming the most powerful of them through their vast fleet and economic power. The cities of Slaver's Bay become independent again, although Ghiscari power begins building again in the south. The warrior-nomads of the vast eastern plains become more emboldened by the fall of Valyria and their dominant tribe, the Dothraki, begins raiding the surrounding lands. The Targaryens remain safe on Dragonstone, the guardians of possibly the last three dragons in the western world.

Targaryen Dynasty

1 AC The War of Conquest: Aegon the Conqueror invades Westeros, subdues, and unites six of the seven kingdoms of Westeros under his banner and constructs a new capital city at King's Landing. He is unable to conquer Dorne and allows it to remain sovereign. With the destruction of the Storm King, Argilac the Arrogant, and the death of the last King of the Reach, control of the castle of Storm's End passes to Aegon's bastard half-brother Orys Baratheon, and of Highgarden to Lord Harlen Tyrell. Edmyn Tully of Riverrun is named Lord of the Riverlands and Vickon Greyjoy of Pyke becomes Lord of the Iron Islands.
3748 AC The Faith Militant uprising: Upon Aegon's death, his son Aenys I, born of incest, takes the throne. The Faith of the Seven objects his ascension and leads a popular uprising against the Targaryens. Unable to deal with crisis Aenys I assigns his brother and heir, Maegor, to deal with it. Maegor I used ruthless and brutal methods to crush the rebellion, which resulted in the deaths of thousands.
48 AC King Jaehaerys I, succeeds King Maegor I, who by that time is known as Maegor the Cruel and puts an ends to the Faith Militant uprising through peaceful means, earning the name The Conciliator and bringing decades of peace and prosperity to the realm.
103129 AC Reign of Viserys I.
129137 AC The Dance of the Dragons: The first major civil war in the history of the Seven Kingdoms. War of succession, between Aegon II and his half-sister Rhaenyra Targaryen. In the resulting conflict many lesser branches of House Targaryen and most of their dragons are extinguished. After Rhaenyra's death, the war continues in the name of her son, Aegon. When Aegon II dies without issue, the war ends by default with Aegon III being crowned.

The last Targaryen dragon dies during Aegon III's reign, earning him the name 'Dragonbane'. The dragon leaves behind three stone eggs, which the Targaryens fail to hatch.

157161 AC Reign of Daeron I, the Young Dragon, he Conquered Dorne, but was unable to hold it, losing forty thousand in the process. Daeron's brother, Baelor I, is said to make his peace with Dorne by walking the Boneway barefoot and rescuing his cousin Aemon the Dragonknight from a viper pit.
161171 AC Reign of King Baelor the Blessed, septon and king. Baelor builds the Great Sept in King's Landing, which afterwards is called the Great Sept of Baelor. Baelor locks his sisters in the Maidenvault of the Red Keep so the sight of them will not tempt him to carnal thoughts. Despite this, his sister Daena the Defiant has an affair with her cousin Aegon (later Aegon IV) and gives birth to a bastard son, Daemon Blackfyre.
ca.170 AC Prince Daeron, second cousin of Baelor I, and Princess Myriah Martell of Dorne are married and have their first son, Prince Baelor.
171172 AC Reign of King Viserys II.
172184 AC Reign of King Aegon IV, Aegon the Unworthy, held to be the worst king in the history of Westeros. On his deathbed Aegon IV legitimises his 'Great Bastards': Daemon Blackfyre, Aegor Rivers, Brynden Rivers and Shiera Seastar. He is succeeded by his son, Daeron II, but his legitimacy is called into question due to his mother's close relationship with Aemon the Dragonknight.
184209 AC Reign of Daeron II.
195196 AC The Blackfyre Rebellion: The second major civil war, erupts after Daemon Blackfyre put claim the Iron Throne, claiming that Daeron II is illegitimate. with many lords declaring for him Daemon Blackfyre, march its force on kings landing but defeated in Battle of the Redgrass Field, where he is killed by his half brother Bloodraven, yet several of his sons escape to the Free Cities with Bittersteel.
197 AC Dorne formally joins the Seven Kingdoms through the marriage of Daeron II's younger sister Daenerys to Prince Maron Martell.
209 AC The events of The Hedge Knight take place. Prince Baelor 'Breakspear' Targaryen, the heir to the throne, is killed in a tourney mishap. A few months later, King Daeron II and Baelor's two sons die in the Great Spring Sickness. Daeron II's second son, Aerys I, becomes king. Prince Baelor's nephew Aegon becomes squire to a hedge knight, Ser Duncan the Tall, in the hope of improving his mettle.
209211 AC Reign of King Aerys I.
ca.211 AC The events of The Sworn Sword take place. House Webber and House Osgrey of the Reach become allies. Bloodraven has become the King's Hand by this time, angering Prince Maekar, brother to Aerys and the late Baelor.
ca.212 AC The Second Blackfyre Rebellion: Blackfyre loyalists attempt to launch a Second Rebellion, but Bloodraven exposes the plan, captures one of Daemon Blackfyre's sons and executes many of the conspirators before a battle needs to be fought.
221233 AC Reign of King Maekar I after Aerys dies with no issue. During Maekar's reign his eldest son Daeron dies of the pox and his second son Aerion "Brightflame" dies after drinking wildfire. His third son, Aemon, journeys to Oldtown to become a maester. Maekar dies battling an outlaw king. Aemon refuses the crown and removes himself to the Wall. Prince Aegon becomes Aegon V, the Unlikely as he is the fourth son of a fourth son. Bloodraven is exiled to the Wall, later becoming Lord Commander.
ca.255260 AC The War of the Ninepenny Kings erupts when the Band of Nine, including Maelys Blackfyre, conquers the Free City of Tyrosh and the Stepstones before plotting an attack on the Seven Kingdoms. Barristan Selmy kills Maelys. Brynden Tully distinguishes himself in the war.
259 AC The Tragedy of Summerhall: King Aegon V and his heir Prince Duncan are killed in a great fire at Targaryen summer palace. The fire was triggered by an unsuccessful attempt to hatch the last three dragon eggs left in the west, and it heralded or directly contributed to Rhaegar Targaryen's birth.
259262 AC Reign of Aegon's second son Jaehaerys II.
262283 AC Reign of Aerys II, the Mad King. He appoints the ruthless young Tywin Lannister as his Hand.
ca.270 AC King Aerys spurns Tywin Lannister's offer of his daughter Cersei for Prince Rhaegar, instead marrying Rhaegar to Princess Elia Martell of Dorne.

The Defiance of Duskendale takes place when House Darklyn refuses to pay taxes to the Iron Throne. Aerys, eager to sort out the situation himself, ends up being taken prisoner. Duskendale is besieged for six months before Barristan Selmy manages to free the king. House Darklyn is destroyed and House Rykker takes over the town. It is said that it was the Defiance that began Aerys' descent into madness. Around this time Prince Rhaegar begins corresponding with Maester Aemon and ponders if he is the "Prince Who Was Promised", who shall be reborn to fight the great darkness when it returns. Later they conclude the prince is actually Rhaegar's baby son, Aegon.

Robert's Rebellion

281 AC The Year of False Spring, Lord Whent holds a great Tourney at Harrenhal, where Prince Rhaegar distinguishes himself in battle, but names Lyanna Stark of Winterfell, who is betrothed to Robert Baratheon, as the Queen of Love and Beauty rather than his own wife Elia.
An outlaw organization Kingswood Brotherhood defeated by royal force commanded by Arthur Dayne, during that battle a young squire, Jaime Lannister, distinguishes himself in the battle and knighted, later he becomes a member of the Kingsguard and is disinherited by his father. Tywin Lannister resigns the Handship in angry protest and returns to Casterly Rock.

Eddard Stark meets and befriends Howland Reed of Greywater Watch.

282283 AC Robert's Rebellion: Rhaegar Targaryen abducts Lyanna Stark. Lyanna's brother and father demand that Aerys discipline his son, but instead the Mad King kills them both. Aerys demands the heads of Robert Baratheon and Eddard Stark from their ward, Jon Arryn. Instead, Houses Arryn, Stark, and Baratheon raise the standard of rebellion. Robert claims the throne through his descent from his great-grandfather, Aegon V. Robert's Rebellion, also called the War of the Usurper, begins. Hoster Tully agrees to join the rebellion as well. The Tyrells remain loyal to the king and besiege Robert's castle of Storm's End, held by his brother Stannis. The Hand of the King, Jon Connington, is defeated in the Battle of the Bells and is sent into exile in the Free Cities. The rebel army defeats the royalists at the Battle of the Trident. Prince Rhaegar is killed. The Lannisters apparently march to the aid of King Aerys, but instead turn against him and sack the city. King Aerys is killed by Jaime Lannister. Princess Elia Martell and her children, Aegon and Rhaenys Targaryen, are brutally murdered by Lannister bannermen, causing a rift between Eddard Stark and Robert Baratheon. Ned Stark and Howland Reed defeat the Kingsguard holding Lyanna prisoner, only to find her dying. Ned and Robert are reconciled. Robert becomes King of the Seven Kingdoms, marrying Cersei Lannister. Ned returns home to Winterfell with his bastard son, Jon Snow. Loyal Targaryen retainers carry Aerys' two youngest children, Prince Viserys and Princess Daenerys, to safety in the Free Cities.

King Robert's Reign

289 AC The Greyjoy Rebellion: Balon Greyjoy names himself King of the Iron Islands. He is defeated and two of his sons are killed. King Robert accepts his surrender and Balon's remaining son, Theon Greyjoy, becomes a ward and hostage of Eddard Stark.
297 AC Magister Illyrio Mopatis of Pentos invites Viserys and Daenerys Targaryen to stay in his manse and offers to help them reclaim their throne.

Hand of the King, Jon Arryn, discovers that the heirs to the Iron Throne are bastards and is killed with poison.

Game of Thrones

298 AC The events of A Song of Ice and Fire begin. The first five novels span a period of three years or more, concluding in the year 300 AC
In the North the Others reappear, after not been seen for many thousand years. In an attack on group of Night's Watch rangers and Wildlings.
The Seven Kingdoms engulfed in the War of the Five Kings, following the Death of king Robert Baratheon. a central conflict that spans through out all five books.

In the East, Daenerys Targaryen, succeeded in hatching three dragon eggs, brining dragons to the world once again.

299 AC In the East, Daenerys Targaryen conquers the Great slaver cities of Slaver's Bay, setting the slaves free and throwing the region into chaos
300 AC

References and Notes

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