Science and technology

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The technology of Westeros appears to have been relatively static for the last several hundred years. Clearly, magic existed in an early era and was a powerful force—it shaped the Valyrian Freehold and was presumably instrumental in the creation of some of the greatest structures and architectural landmarks, which have withstood for thousands of years. In general, Westeros can be seen as somewhat similar to medieval Europe, though overall more advanced in certain aspects and less so in others, there is also no evidence of gunpowder.


  • Metal working of bronze, copper, lead, iron, steel, tin, brass, platinum, and gold.
  • Glass working of varying qualities, from leaded glass, to colored glass
  • Clothing is made of fabrics such as cotton, linen, wool, and silk; elaborate dresses with lace and fine gemstone ornaments are common for noble ladies.
  • Windmills [1].[2]
  • Mills with waterwheels[3]
  • The wildlings have tools such as sledgehammers and long saws with teeth of bone and flint [4]
  • Wheelbarrows [5]
  • Dyes of many colors; metal can even be colored.
  • Dyers are skillful and are able to make many shades of colors[6]
  • Red and green inks are made, at least on Essos[7]
  • A musky perfume with hints of moss, earth, and wildflowers [8]
  • Lye soap [9] [10]
  • Oil lanterns exist and are used frequently.
  • Oil lamps made of iron and glass [11]
  • Large mirrors of beaten silver [12]
  • silvered looking glasses [13]
  • Ravens are trained to carry messages and are used to communicate across the breadth of Westeros.


We can observe distinct building styles across the known world.

  • Masonry - large, multi-storeyed buildings in stone; with high ceilings, vaulted cellars, round turrets (as opposed to the earlier square ones).
  • Masonry - Large temples - probably with gothic arches and flying buttresses to allow for large windows.
  • Thick, diamond-shaped windowpanes [14]

  • Bridge building - Permanent stone structures spanning extremely large rivers which are prone to extreme flooding
  • Road making - very primitive in Westeros, but at Essos they make paved roads, which means foundation layers under the stone (though these are primitive indeed compared to Valyrian roads).
  • Mining and tunnelling - Deploying extensive tunnel and drain system deep underground, which has remained stable and safe for centuries - a large part of which is lined.

See also list of Structures


Main article: Medicine

Military technology and equipment

Main article: Armament


Main article: Ships

List of known types of ships:

  • Fishing sloops without oars[15]
  • Two-masted galleys, equipped with up to 60 oars, and four-decked warships of 400 oars.
  • Galleys of two masts with sixty oars[15]
  • Triple-decked war galleys of three hundred oars[16]
  • Lean warships with iron rams seem typical for the Seven Kingdoms[15][17]
  • Large war galleys may have scorpions on the deck above the oars and have large catapults mounted on their top decks to fore and aft[16]
  • A great war galley of four hundred oars [18]
  • Longships used by the men of the Iron Islands [19]
  • Trading galleys can have many oars, as many as 200 or more[19]
  • Great-bellied cogs and carracks[16]
  • Fat-bellied southron merchant cogs[20]
  • Cogs have forecastles [21]
  • Great cogs have no oars but they have immense holds and huge sails[21]
  • The poleboats of the orphans of the Greenblood are low-roofed and broad-beamed, with hardly any draft to speak of. All but the poorest poleboats are brightly painted and ornately decorated[22]
  • Fisherfolk northwest of Maidenpool fish the waters in leather coracles[23]


Main article: Astronomy

See also List of Constellations

Songs & Books

Westeros has a deep mythic and historic legacy recounted in song, story, and literature. Not only do these tales recount the epics of legendary heroes and romances, but they also retell romanticised history and fables of fantastic creatures.

  • Book binding. Books aren't cheap but they don't seem to be as expensive and rare as books in Europe before the Renaissance.
  • Both "parchment" and "paper" are described throughout the novels as in common use. In real life, paper only entered common use in Europe during the late Middle Ages, and was used for less important tasks like notes (more important books or contracts continued to be made using parchment, either sheep-skin or calf-skin). This generally matches how the overall technology level of Westeros is meant to parallel England during the War of the Roses, at the end of the late Middle Ages.
  • No society has ever been mentioned that use printing presses. Even basic wood block printing seems to be unknown in Westeros.

See also:


Main article: Measurement
  • Weights are measured in stones.[28]
  • Distance is measured in leagues and miles. There are three miles to the league.[29]


Main article: Currency


Main article: beastiary

See also

Notes and References

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