Knight

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A knight is a member of a warrior tradition that is heavily interwoven in the feudal culture of the Seven Kingdoms and the Faith of the Seven. Knights occupy a social standing between that of lords and smallfolk. Contrary to the nobility, this rank is not hereditary. Knights are referred to with the title "Ser".

Ser Loras Tyrell, a famous knight known as the Knight of Flowers - by Michael Komarck ©

History

Knighthood likely has its roots in Andal culture,[1] due to its association to the Faith of the Seven which the Andals brought to Westeros during the Andal invasion,[2] although legends of the Reach claim chivalry was brought by the First Knight, John the Oak.[3] The military success of the Andals' mounted knights and their steel armament proved vital to the Andals' conquest of most of Westeros.[2] Knighthood holds less cultural significance in areas of Westeros that are less assimilated to Andal culture, such as the north and the Iron Islands.[2]

Social Status

A knight of House Florent - by Tomasz Jedruszek. © Fantasy Flight Games

Any man can be knighted, no matter their birth. Social pressure keeps knighthood from being exploited by unscrupulous knights who might give the accolade for money.[4] Knighthood is seen as primarily a martial position, so even the sons of powerful lords are not necessarily knighted if they are incapable of fulfilling the requirements. Doing otherwise would lose honor rather than gain it, and would make a lord and his family be held up to ridicule.[4] Regardless, at times, a lord's son is knighted without fulfilling the requirements. For example, Lord Caswell of Bitterbridge had his only son and heir, a weakling, knighted.[5] Further, a young knight's repute partially derives from the honor of the man who conferred knighthood on him.[6] Receiving your knighthood from a king, prince, Kingsguard knight, or legendary knight holds great prestige.[4]

Although lords hold certain legal rights (e.g., the right of pit and gallows) which knights do not have, and outrank knights at tourney’s and feasts, certain landed knights can be lord in all but name. It is mostly the title which sets the two apart, as the title of lord is generally considered to be more prestigious than the title “ser”. However, the title of a knight has its own prestige, as it cannot be inherited. And although knights are often ranked below lords, certain landed knights might actually be more powerful than lesser lords. It is certainly possible that a landed knight has more lands and wealth than a small lord. Especially landed knights who come from ancient houses, and who have extensive lands and a large, strong castle may actually be more powerful than many smaller lordlings. Such a peculiar status if often reflected by taking a style that incorporates the name of their castle, such as the Knight of Ninestars.[7][8]

Lordly Houses can be reduced to landed knights as punishment from the crown. The Conningtons, originally a lordly house, were reduced to landed knights by King Robert I Baratheon as a punishment for Lord Jon Connington's participation in Robert's Rebellion on the side of House Targaryen. Instead of being the Lord of Griffin's Roost, the head of House Connington is now known as the Knight of Griffin's Roost.[7] Another example is Ser Dontos Hollard, whose knightly status is removed by King Joffrey I Baratheon.[citation needed]

As knighthood is associated with the Faith of the Seven, the North, where only a few houses worship the Seven, holds only few knights. Regardless, the North has warriors who are just as fierce, loyal, and honorable as knights are.[9] However, despite being the northern equivalent of knights, it is not quite the same as being a knight,[10] on account of the prestige that a knighthood contains.

According to Ser Jaime Lannister, three hundred dragons is a fair ransom for a knight from a noble house.[11]

Appearance

Armor worn by Westerosi knights and warriors does not correspond one to one with any single period in European history, according to George R. R. Martin. Instead, it corresponds a mix of armor styles from several different time periods. Westerosi armor tends to "later" styles as you go south. For example, plate is more common in the Reach, while mail is more the rule in the North. Beyond the Wall, the armor used by the wildlings is rather primitive.[1]

Knights can also wear several different kinds of helmets. The "halfhelms" correspond to classic Norman helms from the Hastings era, conical helmets with open faces and a nasal bar. Other types of helmets are greathelms, both visored and closed, [1] and elaborately shaped helms, e.g., the ornate lion helmet worn by Jaime Lannister.[12]

Earning knighthood is also called ‘earning spurs’.[13][14] Wealthier knights can wear gilded spurs.[15]

Knights display a coat-of-arms on their shield and surcoat to identify themselves. Those who are nobly born often wear the arms of their house. Some might chose to use variations of their house’s sigil, however. Examples are Garlan and Loras Tyrell, who use two and three golden roses instead of one to indicate their positions are second and third son. A knight can also chose a completely new coat-of-arms. Many knights wear large crests on their helms that embellish the theme of their arms, such as a black trout for Ser Brynden Tully[16] and a unicorn horn for Ser Flement Brax.[9]

At the time of the tourney at Ashford Meadow in 209 AC, a plain yet complete set of good steel armor with greaves, gorget, and greathelm could cost eight hundred stags,[15] which equals almost four golden dragons.

Becoming a knight

Pages and Squires

Although not a requirement for becoming a knight, boys, often nobly born, can serve as pages and later squires. Boys can become pages at several different ages. It appears to be normal to become a page from the ages of six or seven onwards. Robert Arryn was six years old when his father planned on having him become a page,[citation needed] although circumstances were not entirely ordinary. According to Brienne of Tarth, boys near the age of six or seven are pages.[17] Edric Dayne became a page at the age of seven,[18] and the Princess of Dorne suggested taking on Jaime Lannister as a page at that age as well.[19] Tommen Baratheon hid as a page at the age of eight,[20] while Kevan Lannister was made a page at this age.[21] When Jon Snow, Lord Commander of the Night's Watch, accepts pages and squires from the free folk, he does not accept any boy younger than eight.[22]

After a several years of serving as a page, a boy can become a squire. However, boys are not required to serve as a page before becoming a squire, and because of that, the range of ages upon which a boy is made a squire range quite widely. While Samwell Tarly was supposed to become a page and cupbearer at the age of ten,[23] multiple boys are known to have been squires by that age &ndash or by an even younger age. Examples include Doran Martell, Aegon V Targaryen, Rollam Westerling, and Elmar Frey, who were all already a squire at the age of nine, and Barristan Selmy, and Edric Dayne, made a squire at the age of ten. Some squires choose to never become a knight, and live the rest of their lives as squires. This may be because the individual does not have the inclination to live a knight's martial lifestyle, or does not have the funds to properly equip himself.[4] According to George R. R. Martin,

We tend to think of squires as teenaged boys, knights in training, but that is only part of the truth. Historically, there were many men who spent their entire lives as squires, and never became knights. It was quite common to have thirty- and forty-year-old squires, even some in their fifties. Such men perhaps did not have the wealth to become knights (knights had to pay for their own equipment), or perhaps did not have the inclination. They were the medieval counterparts of the career army sergeant who has no desire to be promoted to lieutenant. Let alone general.[4]

Pages and squires train at arms.[24] Squires run errands for their masters,[12] tend to their master's animals,[15] clean his mail,[15] and help him into his armor whenever required.[12] In times of war, they ride beside their masters, assisting them and fighting by their sides.[25] During tourneys, squires will provide their masters with new lances, or with a sword.[26][12] A boy who is being fostered but who is not training for knighthood (e.g., because he does not follow the Faith of the Seven), can perform the duties of a page and squire without strictly being one.[27]

Age at knighthood

When Prince Maegor Targaryen was knighted at the age of sixteen in 28 AC, he was the youngest knight in the realm at the time.[28] Exceptional fighters can be knighted at a younger age. Loras Tyrell,[29] Jaime Lannister[13] and Prince Daeron Targaryen[30] were fifteen years old upon receiving their knighthood, which has been described as “young”. Daemon Waters received his knighthood at an exceptionally young age, as he was only twelve years old when he was knighted by his father, King Aegon IV Targaryen.[31] However, most have already come of age when they receive their knighthoods; Glendon Ball,[32] Aerys II Targaryen,[33] Daemon Targaryen,[34] Barristan Selmy,[35] and Kevan Lannister[21] were sixteen years old when dubbed. Rhaegar Targaryen was newly knighted at seventeen,[36] and Quentyn Martell,[37] Tywin Lannister[33] Denys Mallister,[38] and Harrold Hardyng[39] were even older, knighted at the age of eighteen. Hedge knight Duncan claims to be a knight at the age of sixteen or seventeen, which the nobles at Ashford do not seem to find objectionable,[15] and Josmyn Peckledon, a hero at the Battle of the Blackwater at the age of fourteen, was promised to receive his knighthood when he comes of age.[40]

Reasons for knighthood

Most men are knighted after demonstrating their abilities to joust or hold their own in battle. Often following tourneys (e.g., Harrold Hardyng, Daemon I Blackfyre), but also for feats accomplished during important battles (e.g., Jaime Lannister following the campaign against the Kingswood Brotherhood, and more than six hundred men following the Battle of the Blackwater).[40][41] Squires might also be knighted at the battlefield as they lay dying (e.g., Tywald Lannister), and men can also ask knighthood as a boon before being executed (e.g., Trystane Truefyre).[42] Regardless, the motivation for receiving knighthood can also purely be political. For example, Laenor Velaryon was knighted because he was to marry Rhaenyra Targaryen, the Princess of Dragonstone, and it was thought that it would only be appropriate that the prince consort of the Seven Kingdoms would be a knight.[34]

Knighthood can also be acquired in far less honorable ways. Tales are told of knights who gained their knighthoods with favors, coin, and threats. One such an example is Glendon Ball, who is claimed to have sold his maiden sister's virginity in exchange for receiving his knighthood.[32]

Knighthood ceremony

A man being knighted – by Jason Engle. © Fantasy Flight Games

Any knight can make a knight. However, Kings can make knights as well, even if they were never knighted themselves. On the other hand, Lord cannot dub someone a knight if they have not previously been knighted themselves.[43]

Knighthood is partially a religious matter, open to followers of the Faith of the Seven.[10] There are several variations of ceremonies. It is customary to stand vigil in a sept the night before one receives knighthood.[9][15] This vigil is carried out before the figure of the Warrior. The sword might be placed before or upon the figure, and the armor in a pile at the statue’s base.[44] At times, the knights-to-be might walk barefoot from the sept to the location where they are to receive their knighthood, to prove their humble hearts.[40] The six hundred knights who were dubbed after the Battle of the Blackwater, also wore shifts of undyed wool, and marked receiving their knighthood by the putting on a swordbelt after being dubbed.[40] Before taking a knight’s vows, a septon might anount the knight-to-be with the seven oils.[9][15] Being anointed by the High Septon is considered to be a great honor.[45] However, men can also be dubbed a knight without exercising these customs, for example on the battlefield, possibly as they lay dying (e.g., Tywald Lannister).[46] Witnesses might be present at the moment of receiving knighthood,[32] although this is not a requirement.[15]

When knighting someone in a formal manner, the dubber speaks the knight-to-be’s name and House (if he has one). Then the dubber touches the subject on the right shoulder with his sword, and while placing the sword on the other shoulder following every sentence says:[15]

In the name of the Warrior I charge you to be brave. In the name of the Father I charge you to be just. In the name of the Mother I charge you to defend the young and innocent. In the name of the Maid I charge you to protect all women....[15]

In a less formal knighting ceremony, the dubber lays his sword upon the knight-to-be’s right shoulder, and says:[47]

[Name of knight-to-be], do you swear before the eyes of gods and men to defend those who cannot defend themselves, to protect all women and children, to obey your captains, your liege lord, and your king, to fight bravely when needed and do such other tasks as are laid upon you, however hard or humble or dangerous they may be?

After the subject who is being knighted confirms that he will dp as asked, the sword is moved to the left shoulder, and the dubber will say that the newly-made knight can rise.[47]

Practices

Knights are supposed to be honorable and follow the chivalric codes.[6] They are supposed to be brave and just,[15] and to defend the innocent,[15] the weak,[15] and women.[48]

Knights preferably have multiple horses. One horse to travel on, and another specifically to ride in tourneys and in battle.[15] Some knights refuse to name their horses, so they are less likely to feel attached to them, as horses are likely to die in battle.[49][50]

The host of a tourney decides whether only knights, or also sellswords, squires, and freeriders are allowed to compete. Especially in the Reach, the heart of the chivalric tradition in the Seven Kingdoms and the place where knighthood is most universally esteemed, is the most likely place to encounter a “knight’s only” tourney.[51] During the joust, the man who loses the tilt usually has to give up his armor and horse.[15][32] For a poor knight, this might represent a danger; So long as a knight is armed and horsed, he remains a knight of sorts, but without, they are little more than a beggar.[32]

Types of knights

Knights of House Qorgyle leading the charge – by Tomasz Jedruszek. © Fantasy Flight Games

The term true knight refers to the ideal knight, who upholds all the qualities of what knighthood stands for. Each knight, no matter which kind of knight, should ideally aspire to live up to these standards.

Several different types of knights can be identified:

  • Landed knight: Knights with a keep and lands of their own, who “sleep in the hedges as often as not”.[52] Although wealthier landed knights might hold more land than the poorest lords do, they do not have the authority to deliver law and justice.[7][8]
  • Hedge knight: Hedge knights are nearer to common servants than noble knights in the eyes of most lords.[32] They spend their lives riding from keep to keep, taking service with different lords until the lords have no more need for them and sent them off.[15] Hedge knights have an unsavory reputation,[53] and merchants are notoriously mistrustful of them.[15] Hedge knights gone rogue are referred to as robber knights.[15][32][53]
  • Household knight: Household knights are landless knights who have been taken into the service of a lord.[15]

As knighthood is associated with the Faith of the Seven, the North, where only a few houses worship the Seven, holds only few knights. Regardless, the North has warriors who are just as fierce, loyal, and honorable as knights are.[9] However, despite being the northern equivalent of knights, it is not quite the same as being a knight,[10] on account of the prestige that a knighthood contains. Most northern knights live in the southern regions of the north,[54] although not in the Neck.[55] House Manderly specifically, originating from the Reach, still holds to the Faith of the Seven, and White Harbor, their seat, has been most exposed to southron influences.[54] Not all northern knights hold to the Faith of the Seven, however. One such an example is Ser Bartimus.[56] Similarly, among the ironborn knights are few, as they follow the Drowned God. Two examples of ironborn knights are Ser Harras Harlaw and Ser Aladale Wynch.

Quotes

I am a knight. I shall die a knight.[57]
Barristan Selmy to Joffrey Baratheon's court


What do you think a knight is for, girl? You think it’s all taking favors from ladies and looking fine in gold plate? Knights are for killing.[58]
Sandor Clegane to Sansa Stark


Knights may keep their truces with other knights, but they are not so careful of their honor when dealing with those they deem outlaw.[59]
Black Lorren to Theon Greyjoy


I have seen a hundred tournaments and more wars than I would wish, and however strong or fast or skilled a knight may be, there are others who can match him.[60]
Arstan Whitebeard to Jorah Mormont


Any knight can make a knight, and every man you see before you has felt a sword upon his shoulder.[61]
Beric Dondarrion to Sandor Clegane


Sandor: Might be you are knights after all. You lie like knights, maybe you murder like knights.

Beric: Say what you mean, Clegane.
Sandor: A knight's a sword with a horse. The rest, the vows and the sacred oils and the lady’s favors, they’re silk ribbons tied round the sword. Maybe the sword’s prettier with ribbons hanging off it, but it will kill you just as dead.[61]

Sandor Clegane and Beric Dondarrion


Some knights are dark and full of terrors. War makes monsters of us all.[62]
Thoros of Myr to Brienne of Tarth


In my Seven Kingdoms, knights go on quests to prove themselves worthy of the maiden that they love. They seek for magic swords, for chests of gold, for crowns stolen from a dragon's hoard. [63]
Daenerys Targaryen to Hizdahr zo Loraq


Knights defend the weak and protect the innocent, they say. And I am the fairest maid in all Volantis.[64]
– The widow of the waterfront to Jorah Mormont


Night work is not knight's work.[65]
Barbrey Dustin to Aenys Frey


Without honor, a knight is no more than a common killer. It is better to die with honor than to live without it.[6]
Barristan Selmy to his squires

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 So Spake Martin: Yet More Questions (July 22, 2001)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 The World of Ice & Fire, Ancient History: The Arrival of the Andals.
  3. The World of Ice & Fire, The Reach: Garth Greenhand.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 So Spake Martin: Some Info about Knighthood (July 30, 1999)
  5. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 8, Tyrion III.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 67, The Kingbreaker.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 So Spake Martin: Knights and Lords (March 2, 2002)
  8. 8.0 8.1 So Spake Martin: Land Ownership and Marriage in Westeros (December 19, 1999)
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 56, Tyrion VII.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 So Spake Martin: Religion and Knighthood (December 28, 2001)
  11. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 44, Jaime VI.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 30, Eddard VII.
  13. 13.0 13.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 11, Jaime II.
  14. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 25, The Windblown.
  15. 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 15.15 15.16 15.17 15.18 The Hedge Knight.
  16. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 38, Jaime VI.
  17. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 14, Brienne III.
  18. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 43, Arya VIII.
  19. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 70, Tyrion X.
  20. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 44, Tyrion X.
  21. 21.0 21.1 The World of Ice & Fire, The Westerlands: House Lannister Under the Dragons.
  22. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 53, Jon XI.
  23. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 15, Samwell II.
  24. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 21, Jon V.
  25. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 61, Tyrion XIV.
  26. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 29, Sansa II.
  27. So Spake Martin: Some Questions (March 16, 2000)
  28. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Maegor I.
  29. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Loras Tyrell.
  30. The Princess and the Queen.
  31. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aegon IV.
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 32.5 32.6 The Mystery Knight.
  33. 33.0 33.1 The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aerys II.
  34. 34.0 34.1 The Rogue Prince.
  35. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 67, Jaime VIII.
  36. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 24, Cersei V.
  37. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 6, The Merchant's Man.
  38. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 78, Samwell V.
  39. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 41, Alayne II.
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 65, Sansa VIII.
  41. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 4, Tyrion I.
  42. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aegon II.
  43. So Spake Martin: Comic-Con (San Diego, CA; July 20-23) (July 23, 2006)
  44. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 8, Jaime I.
  45. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 3, Daenerys I.
  46. georgerrmartin.com: The World of Ice and Fire: The Westerlands (unabridged)
  47. 47.0 47.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 39, Arya VII.
  48. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 32, Sansa III.
  49. The Sworn Sword.
  50. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 27, Jaime III.
  51. So Spake Martin: Tourney Rules (April 29, 1999)
  52. So Spake Martin: The Effects of Winter (June 21, 2001)
  53. 53.0 53.1 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 4, Brienne I.
  54. 54.0 54.1 So Spake Martin: The Drowned God and More (July 14, 1999)
  55. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 24, Bran II.
  56. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 29, Davos IV.
  57. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 57, Sansa V.
  58. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 52, Sansa IV.
  59. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 66, Theon VI.
  60. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 8, Daenerys I.
  61. 61.0 61.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 34, Arya VI.
  62. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 42, Brienne VIII.
  63. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 23, Daenerys IV.
  64. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 27, Tyrion VII.
  65. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 46, A Ghost in Winterfell.

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