Robert I Baratheon
Robert I Baratheon is the Lord of the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros and the head of House Baratheon of King's Landing. Robert was crowned king after King Aerys II Targaryen, his first cousin once removed, was killed during Robert's Rebellion. Following the war, Robert married Cersei Lannister to ensure political stability. With her, Robert has three children: Joffrey, Myrcella, and Tommen. In the television adaptation Game of Thrones he is played by Mark Addy.
Appearance and Character
- See also: Images of Robert Baratheon
Robert has the classical Baratheon look: black hair and bright blue eyes. His heavy black hair is thick on his chest, and coarse around his sex. He is a very tall man; Eddard Stark estimates his height to be six and a half feet. As a young adult, Robert was a handsome, clean-shaven man, with rough and hard hands. He was strong and powerful, and muscled "like a maiden's fantasy". However, after he won the throne, Robert's appearance changed. Due to excessive feasting and drinking, Robert gained a significant amount of weight. In the nine years since Greyjoy's Rebellion, he gained at least eight stone in weight. Now, he is often red-faced from drink, with dark circles underneath his eyes, and walks as if he is half in his cups, while sweating through his silks. In the final years of his life, Robert grew a beard, which people described as a wild, thick and fierce thing, and which served to hide his double chin.
Robert is brave, but headstrong, rash, and impatient. He is proud, and will not likely back down on words spoken in a drunken bravado. As king, Robert is no longer used to someone disagreeing with him, and a good way of ensuring that he’d do something, is telling him that he could not, should not, or must not do something (especially in public). Tyrion Lannister considers Robert to be a great blustering oaf, while Varys describes him as a fool. Cersei Lannister considers Robert to be an ignorant, dumb, slow-witted, drunken brute of a man, who does not have the ruthless streak she believes a king requires. Although several people consider Robert to be brave, Cersei believes him to be a coward. According to Petyr Baelish, Robert is simply very practiced at closing his eyes to things he would rather not see.
Robert is as strong as a bull and fearless in battle. He loves the song of swords and considers poison to be a coward’s weapon. As long they are honest and brave, Robert can be merciful towards his enemies. The only exception are the Targaryens; his hatred for them is a madness within him. A peerless warrior in his youth, Robert fought with a spiked iron warhammer, crafted by Donal Noye. In battle, he wore a great antlered helmet, which made him look like a horned god. He prefers melees, in which he can hit people with his hammer, over jousts. Despite the numerous weapons in the royal armory, the only blade Robert uses is a hunting knife he received as a boy from Jon Arryn, his foster father. Although his condition has deteriorated due to his weight gain and frequent drinking, Robert remains a strong man; Jaime Lannister believes that Robert is stronger than him. Robert possesses a powerful battlefield voice.
Robert is a man of huge appetites, who knows how to take his pleasures. He is quite promiscuous, and has fathered multiple bastard children. His lusts are the subject of ribald drinking songs throughout the realms, As king, Robert is not loath to impose upon the hospitality of his subjects, no matter whether it is voluntarily or forced. At the same time, however, Robert possesses a great, but rather careless, generosity. He is an avid hunter. Some of Robert's favorite songs are "A Cask of Ale", "Fifty-Four Tuns", and "The Bear and the Maiden Fair".
Born in 262 AC, Robert was the first born child of Cassana Estermont and Steffon Baratheon, Lord of Storm's End, Lord Paramount of the Stormlands, and head of House Baratheon. He was a scant year older than his brother, Stannis, who was born in 264 AC. When Robert was already in his teens, his youngest brother, Renly, was born.
According to Stannis, when Robert was five or six years old, the two brothers were brought to court by their father, Steffon, where they witnessed the Hand of the King, Lord Tywin Lannister, sitting on the Iron Throne and holding court.
From an early age onwards, Robert had been fostered by Lord Jon Arryn in the Eyrie, together with Eddard Stark of Winterfell. The two boys became fast friends, and Jon Arryn, who had no children of his own, became like a second father to them. During the period in which he was fostered, Robert visited Storm's End on multiple occasions. At some point, Robert was knighted. During a tourney at Storm's End, Robert was defeated by Ser Barristan Selmy.
In 278 AC, Robert's father was sent on a mission by King Aerys II Targaryen, to travel to Volantis to find a bride for Robert's cousin, Crown Prince Rhaegar Targaryen. The mission failed, and Steffon, accompanied by his wife, returned home. Robert and Stannis were present at Storm's End when their parents were expected to arrive, and when the ship came into sight of Storm's End, the boys witnessed how a storm in Shipbreaker Bay sank the ship their parents were on. With his father's death, Robert became the Lord of Storm's End.
Robert fell in love with Lyanna Stark, Eddard's younger sister. In time, Lyanna's father, Lord Rickard Stark, agreed to betroth her to Robert. At the time of their betrothal, Robert already had a bastard daughter, Mya Stone, in the Vale of Arryn, which led to Lyanna commenting that Robert would never keep to one bed, despite his love for her. Eddard would later state that Robert saw only Lyanna's beauty, and never recognized her boldness and strength of will.
In 281 AC, Robert was present at the tourney at Harrenhal, where he took part in the melee. He held a drinking contest with Richard Lonmouth, and swore to unmask the mystery knight known as the Knight of the Laughing Tree, although he failed to do so. It was Robert's cousin, Crown Prince Rhaegar Targaryen, who won the final joust of the tourney. The prince crowned Lyanna—by then long betrothed to Robert—the queen of love and beauty, instead of his wife, Princess Elia Martell. There are some who say that Robert had laughed, stating that Rhaegar had only paid Lyanna her due, though according to men who knew Robert better, he felt it had been an insult, on which he brooded long, causing him to harden against Prince Rhaegar.
- Main article: Robert's Rebellion
News of the kidnapping led Lyanna Stark's eldest brother, Brandon, and later her father, Lord Rickard, to King's Landing demanding justice. Both were executed by order of King Aerys II Targaryen, who demanded that Lord Jon Arryn turn over Robert and Eddard to him. Jon refused, and rose up in rebellion instead, with Eddard (now Lord of Winterfell following the deaths of his father and older brother) and Robert rallying the north and the stormlands respectively. Not all of Arryn's bannermen supported the rebellion, however. Robert fought at Gulltown, where Marq Grafton and other loyalists from the Vale blocked the port. Robert slew Grafton and sailed back home to Storm's End to call his banners.
However, some of his own remained loyal to the throne. When Robert learned that Lords Grandison, Cafferen, and Fell had gathered their hosts and planned to join forces at Summerhall in order to march on Storm's End, he rode ahead with his knights to Summerhall. He fought each of the lords in turn, defeating them all. Robert returned to Storm's End with his captives, and there won the loyalty of Lords Cafferen and Grandison, as well as, Silveraxe Fell, the son of Lord Fell whom Robert had slain.
Free to march north so he could join forces with Jon Arryn and the northmen, Robert marched out again, leaving his younger brother Stannis in charge of Storm's End. At Ashford, Lord Randyll Tarly fell upon Robert with his van, and defeated Robert's forces at the battle of Ashford, before Lord Mace Tyrell could arrive with the main force from the Reach. Robert escaped capture with the bulk of his forces, and continued his journey north. Aerys wanted someone young and vigorous to match Robert, and so named Lord Jon Connington as his Hand of the King. Connington personally led a mighty army into the field, giving chase to Robert. Robert's march became a grueling one. He became wounded and separated from his men. At the Stoney Sept, Robert took refuge. When Connington and his army arrived at the town and began searching the houses, the residents actively aided Robert, keeping him hidden from the king's men. In the end, they hid him in a brothel. When Lords Eddard Stark, Hoster Tully, and Jon Arryn arrived with a rebel army the battle of the Bells began. Robert came out of the brothel in which he had been hiding and fought with Connington, almost killing him. One of Robert's bastard children, Bella, fathered upon a whore in the whorehouse, was named after the battle.
King Aerys began to realize that Robert was the greatest threat to the Targaryen dynasty since Daemon I Blackfyre, and exiled Connington, naming Lord Qarlton Chelsted as his Hand of the King in Connington's stead. To secure the aid of House Tully, Jon Arryn and Eddard Stark married Lord Hoster's daughters, Lysa and Catelyn. Robert attended the wedding.
Robert led the rebel forces during the battle of the Trident, the decisive battle at war's end. Around this time, Robert proclaimed his intention to claim the Iron Throne. Out of all three leaders of the rebellion, Robert had the better claim, due to the fact that his grandmother had been Princess Rhaelle Targaryen, the youngest daughter of King Aegon V Targaryen. To justify Robert's claim, the maesters would later use his bloodties to House Targaryen, though it was conquest which won him the throne.
In 283 AC[N 1] the rebel and loyalist forces fought at a place that became known as the ruby ford, located on the northern bank of the Trident. Robert and Prince Rhaegar Targaryen met on horseback in single combat, with the battle raging on all around them. Rhaegar wounded Robert before Robert killed Rhaegar with a blow to the chest from his warhammer. Eventually, the Targaryen host broke and ran. When Lord Roose Bolton advised Robert to execute Ser Barristan Selmy, a knight of Aerys' Kingsguard who had been severely wounded and taken captive, Robert refused, and instead had his own maester treat Selmy's wounds.
Wounded and unable to chase the loyalists, Robert gave the pursuit of the remnants of the Targaryen army to Eddard Stark. Leading the van, Eddard followed the loyalists back to King's Landing. However, Lord Tywin Lannister had arrived earlier, with an army, and had begun to sack King's Landing. Aerys, his two grandchildren, and his daughter-in-law died in the battle. After Robert arrived in King's Landing, Tywin presented him with the mutilated bodies of Elia Martell, Rhaegar's wife, and their two young children, Aegon and Rhaenys. While Robert was pleased they were dead, Eddard Stark was outraged and disgusted by the act, calling it murder, and saying the young prince and princess were no more than babes. Robert's response was, "I see no babes, only dragonspawn." The argument led to Eddard leaving King's Landing the next day, to fight the final battles alone. It took the death of Lyanna and their shared grief to reunite the pair in friendship. Robert was thereafter haunted by Lyanna's memory and the desire for further vengeance against the slain Rhaegar.
In late 283 AC, Robert was crowned king. He pardoned many of his former enemies. Robert appointed Ser Barristan Selmy as the Lord Commander of his Kingsguard. Despite Eddard Stark urging Robert to strip Ser Jaime Lannister of his white cloak, Robert listened to Jon Arryn's advice, and pardoned Jaime together with master of whisperers Varys and Grand Maester Pycelle, and continued to serve in the Kingsguard along with Ser Barristan Selmy. At his coronation feast, Robert joked to Jaime about the fact that Jaime was already being called "kingslayer".
Robert tasked his brother Stannis with building a new fleet and capturing Dragonstone, the last Targaryen-loyalist stronghold, where the pregnant Dowager Queen Rhaella Targaryen and her son Viserys remained. Dragonstone was assaulted some nine months[N 2] after the battle of the Trident by Stannis, but Viserys and the newly-born Daenerys Targaryen had been smuggled from the island shortly before. Robert blamed Stannis for letting the Targaryen children escape, even though the two children had been spirited to safety by Targaryen loyalists shortly before Stannis had even set sail.
Although peace returned to the Seven Kingdoms, not all supported Robert as king. By those, he was referred to as Usurper. Dorne never forgot or forgave the fact that Robert condoned the cold-blooded murders of Elia Martell and her two young children, Rhaenys and Aegon. The year after Robert took the throne, when Elia's younger brother Prince Oberyn began plotting a rebellion in the name of Viserys, Lord Jon Arryn, Robert's new Hand of the King, travelled to Dorne, sat down with Doran Martell, the Prince of Dorne, and ended all talk of rebellion. Regardless, Robert never visited Dorne.
As he now resided at his seat in King's Landing, Robert granted the ancestral Baratheon seat of Storm's End to his youngest brother, Renly, while naming his brother Stannis as Lord of Dragonstone. Both Stannis and Cersei Lannister believe that Robert intended this as a slight against Stannis, but according to George R. R. Martin Robert had not necessarily meant it as such. Dragonstone had traditionally been the seat of the heir to the Iron Throne, the Prince of Dragonstone, during most of the Targaryen Dynasty, so the then-childless Robert was granting it to his heir at that time, Stannis. Now the Lord of Dragonstone, Stannis became the head of House Baratheon of Dragonstone.
Though he had no wish to marry after Lyanna's death, the realm needed an heir, and Jon Arryn suggested that Robert marry Lady Cersei of House Lannister, the only daughter of Lord Tywin Lannister, to ensure political stability and Tywin's support should Viserys ever attempt to win back his throne. Robert and Cersei were married in 284 AC in the Great Sept of Baelor. A tourney was held to celebrate the wedding. However, during their wedding night, a drunken Robert accidentally whispered, "Lyanna" into Cersei's ear whilst consummateing the marriage, an act that would set the tone for their marriage. That night was the only night sex between Robert and Cersei was consensual.
While Robert "claimed his rights" frequently during the early years of their marriage, his drinking led to him hurting Cersei during those encounters. When she confronted him once during their first year of marriage, Robert claimed it was because of the drink, and he was not to blame. According to Robert, he did not remember anything of those nights, but according to Cersei, Robert did recall what he did to her, but felt that pretending to have forgotten was easier than facing the truth. Over time, Robert came to Cersei's bed less frequently, not even once a year. Cersei began to loathe her husband, and her cold attitude towards him created a distance between them. Meanwhile, Robert remained in love with Lyanna Stark for years after her death, further placing a strain upon the marriage. Robert preferred to drink, feast, and whore, Robert sired several bastards during his marriage to Cersei, though kept them out of sight. Robert once suggested bringing a bastard daughter of his to court after his son Joffrey assaulted a pregnant cat. When his wife threatened the girl's life, Robert hit her, but refrained from for bringing her to court. During the wedding of his younger brother Stannis to Lady Selyse of House Florent, Robert deflowered Delena Florent, a cousin of Selyse, on the wedding bed. According to Robert, he was too drunk to know which bed it was. This coupling led to the birth of Edric Storm, the only officially acknowledged bastard of the king.
Cersei had had an incestuous relationship with her twin brother Jaime Lannister for years, and they continued their illicit relationship after Cersei's marriage to Robert. Although Robert was forever imploring Cersei to join him on his hunts in the early years of their marriage, Cersei consistently refused, although she urged him to go, as she could be with her brother in his absence. Two of Robert's Estermont uncles had spent half a year at court following his wedding, and Robert insisted on repaying the visit. They remained on Greenstone for a fortnight. There, Robert slept with his cousin, and upon learning this fact, Cersei had sex with Jaime whilst in the castle.
Cersei gave birth to three children: Joffrey, born in 286 AC, Myrcella, born in 289 AC, and Tommen, born in 290 AC. Though everyone, including Robert, believed them to be Robert's children, Jaime is the biological father of all three. Robert did not attend any of the births; whenever Cersei's time was due, he left for a hunt, returning only after the birth. Cersei became pregnant by Robert only once. Refusing to give birth to Robert's child, she had Jaime find a woman to cleanse her.
Six years after taking the crown, Robert joined forces with his Warden of the North, Eddard Stark, and his Warden of the West, Tywin Lannister, to crush Greyjoy's Rebellion. The rebellion lasted less than a year, and ended in Robert's victory. When Balon Greyjoy was brought before him in chains, the ironman told Robert that, since he had never sworn any vow to any Baratheon, he could not be named a traitor. Robert had Greyjoy swear his allegiance, and was allowed to remain Lord of Pyke. To celebrate his victory, Robert ordained that a tourney should be held outside Lannisport.
Robert did not like his kingship; according to Donal Noye, Robert changed by becoming king, and not for the better. He find business concerning coin, crop, or justice tedious. He barely attended the small council sessions, preferring to hunt and hawk instead, and when he did attend, he usually dozed through them. He left the task of ruling to his small council, mostly to Jon Arryn, his Hand, and Stannis Baratheon, his brother. He loathed "counting copers", but loved to organize tournaments and feasts, and so beggared the realm. Despite the fact that Aerys II had left treasure vaults overflowing with gold, Robert's spending eventually left the crown in debt of over six million golden dragons (borrowing heavily from the Lannisters, the Tyrells, the Faith, and the Iron Bank of Braavos).
Though Robert loved him, he did not have a close bond with his heir Joffrey. Robert disliked the fact that Joffrey always cried when he picked him up as a babe, as his bastard children gurgled at him happily. Nor was he fond of Joffrey's nature; once, Joffrey had cut open a pregnant cat to see if there truly were kittens inside its belly; when the boy had gone to Robert to show him what he’d done, Robert hit him so hard, he knocked out two of the boy's teeth. Robert claims he has dreamed of giving up his crown, but that the thought of Joffrey on the throne with Cersei whispering in his ear has stopped him.
Due to his frequent whoring, Robert also sired several bastards. According to a prophecy by Maggy the Frog, Robert has fathered sixteen children. However, Robert has acknowledged only one of them, and Varys knows only of the existence of eight. The eldest, Mya Stone, was born to him while he was still in the Vale. Bella was conceived during Robert's Rebellion, and Gendry shortly after the rebellion had ended, to a worker in an alehouse in King’s Landing. According to Lord Petyr Baelish, Robert also fathered twins on a serving woman at Casterly Rock who were killed on the orders of Queen Cersei. Edric Storm, born to Delena Florent, is Robert's only acknowledged bastard, The youngest of Robert’s baseborn children is Barra, a babe born to a prostitute in King’s Landing. Ser Justin Massey squired for Robert, and developed his lustiness during this time; the king's current squires are Lancel and Tyrek Lannister, cousins of Queen Cersei.
A Game of Thrones
When his Hand of the King, Lord Jon Arryn, dies suddenly, Robert travels to Winterfell to offer the position to his old childhood friend, Lord Eddard Stark, and offers a betrothal between his own son Joffrey and Eddard's eldest daughter, Sansa. Eddard is shocked how much Robert has changed since he last saw him, at the end of the Greyjoy Rebellion. Eddard accepts the position of Hand and moves to King's Landing. On their way to King's Landing, Robert confesses to Eddard that he dreams about giving up his crown and journeying to the Free Cities as a sellsword to spend his life warring and whoring, believing that is what he was made for; only the thought of his heir, Joffrey, on the Iron Throne with his mother, Cersei, whispering in his ear keeps Robert from indulging his fantasy. In the Barrowlands, Robert discusses the marriage of Princess Daenerys Targaryen to the Dothraki Khal Drogo, and is uncertain about Eddard’s opinion that the marriage does not represent a danger. At Castle Darry, after his son Joffrey has been attacked by Arya Stark's direwolf, Nymeria, he is willing to call the incident simply an argument between two children. As the direwolf has disappeared, the beast cannot be executed. When Queen Cersei Lannister suggests Sansa Stark's direwolf, Lady, is executed instead, Robert does nothing to stop it, despite loathing the suggestion.
Robert does not wish to face Eddard and spends the remaining fortnight of the journey drunk in Queen Cersei’s wheelhouse. He decides to host a tourney for Eddard's appointment as Hand of the King, in which he plans to fight himself, loudly shouting at Cersei when she openly attempts to forbid him. Eddard and Ser Barristan Selmy convince him that the fight would be unfair, as every contestant would let their king win, which angers Robert, as it touches on his pride. He eventually does not participate in the melee. Lord Varys later tells Eddard that Cersei had planned to have Robert killed during the melee.
When Robert calls a meeting to demand the death of the pregnant Daenerys Targaryen, who is in exile, Eddard refuses to be a part of it and resigns his position in protest. After Eddard is injured in an ambush led by Ser Jaime Lannister, Cersei's twin brother, Robert visits his friend and gives him back his badge of office, stating that if Eddard refuses to take it, Robert will pin it on Jaime. While Robert is gone hunting, Eddard comes to the realization that Robert's children are actually Cersei's bastards born of incest with her brother, Jaime. Knowing that Robert will kill Cersei and the children in his wroth, Eddard confronts her, offering her the ability to flee. Cersei rejects.
Cersei had given Robert's squire Lancel Lannister a fortified strongwine, three times as potent as normal, to give to Robert. While hunting a monstrous large boar, Robert drinks the strongwine and becomes very drunk. He insists on facing the boar alone when they find it, but is mortally gored in the process. Robert is brought back to King's Landing, where he has Eddard write him his will. Robert names him Lord Regent and Protector of the Realm, to serve until Joffrey comes of age. Eddard, unable to tell Robert about Cersei's infidelity, changes the wording in Robert's will, replacing "my son Joffrey" with "my heir". Robert dies the next day. The bells of the Great Sept of Baelor toll in the city to announce his death.
According to Lord Varys, if it had not been the boar which killed Robert, it would have been a fall from a horse or an arrow gone astray, as Cersei needed Robert to die during the hunt. When King Joffrey I Baratheon wishes to punish someone for his father's death, Varys suggests that Ser Barristan Selmy, the Lord Commander of the Kingsguard, be blamed. Joffrey forces Barristan into retirement, replacing him with Jaime as Lord Commander and allowing Sandor Clegane to be added to the Kingsguard.
A Clash of Kings
Quotes by Robert
|“||The gods be damned. It was a hollow victory they gave me. A crown ... it was the girl I prayed them for. Your sister, safe ... and mine again, as she was meant to be. I ask you, Ned, what good is it to wear a crown? The gods mock the prayers of kings and cowherds alike.||”|
|“||Eddard: You’re too fat for your armor, Robert.
Robert: Fat? Fat, is it? Is that how you speak to your king? Ah, damn you, Ned, why are you always right?
|“||I swear to you, I was never so alive as when I was winning this throne, or so dead as now that I've won it.||”|
|“||STOP THIS MADNESS, IN THE NAME OF YOUR KING!||”|
|“||I will not kill a man for loyalty, nor for fighting well.||”|
|“||Robert: The realm ... the realm knows ... what a wretched king I've been. Bad as Aerys, the gods spare me.
Eddard: No, not as bad as Aerys, Your Grace. Not near so bad as Aerys.
Quotes about Robert
|“||The king was a great disappointment to Jon. His father had talked of him often: the peerless Robert Baratheon, demon of the Trident, the fiercest warrior of the realm, a giant among princes. Jon saw only a fat man, red-faced under his beard, sweating through his silks. He walked like a man half in his cups.||”|
|“||Robert was never the same after he put on that crown. Some men are like swords, made for fighting. Hang them up and they go to rust.||”|
|“||They said Robert Baratheon was strong as a bull and fearless in battle, a man who loved nothing better than war.||”|
|“||Robert wanted smiles and cheers, always, so he went where he found them, to his friends and his whores. Robert wanted to be loved. My brother Tyrion has the same disease.||”|
|“||Robert ... He is in my dreams as well. Laughing. Drinking. Boasting. Those were the things he was best at. Those, and fighting. I never bested him at anything.||”|
|“||It's not Aerys I rue, it's Robert ... Why is it no one names Robert oathbreaker? He tore the realm apart, yet I am the one with shit for honor.||”|
|“||Arys: Robert was no monster.
|“||We all know what my brother would do. Robert would gallop up to the gates of Winterfell alone, break them with his warhammer, and ride through the rubble to slay Roose Bolton with his left hand and the Bastard with his right. I am not Robert. But we will march, and we will free Winterfell … or die in the attempt.||”|
Behind the Scenes
- ↑ Erronously listed as 282 AC in early prints of The World of Ice & Fire, which has subsequently been corrected into 283 AC in later prints.
- ↑ Daenerys was conceived prior to Rhaella leaving King’s Landing, and was born nine months after Rhaella left the city. Rhaella left in between the battle of the Trident, and the sack of King’s Landing, which occurred a fortnight apart.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 The World of Ice & Fire, The Fall of the Dragons: Robert's Rebellion.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aerys II.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Robert Baratheon.
- ↑ The World of Ice & Fire, Appendix: Reign of the Kings.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 58, Eddard XV.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 32, Cersei VII.
- ↑ 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 4, Eddard I.
- ↑ A Feast for Crows, Chapter 9, Brienne II.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 5, Jon I.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 A Clash of Kings, Prologue.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 36, Daenerys IV.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 39, Eddard X.
- ↑ 13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13.06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.13 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 12, Eddard II.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 47, Eddard XIII.
- ↑ 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 15.15 15.16 15.17 15.18 15.19 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 30, Eddard VII.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 33, Eddard VIII.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 3, Tyrion I.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 7, Cersei II.
- ↑ A Feast for Crows, Chapter 8, Jaime I.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 24, Cersei V.
- ↑ A Storm of Swords, Chapter 71, Daenerys VI.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 20, Eddard IV.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 27, Daenerys II.
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 42, Daenerys IV.
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 45, Eddard XII.
- ↑ A Game of Thrones, Chapter 19, Jon III.
- ↑ A Storm of Swords, Chapter 32, Tyrion IV.
- ↑ A Storm of Swords, Chapter 21, Jaime III.
- ↑ 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 29.6 29.7 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 35, Eddard IX.
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 27, Eddard VI.
- ↑ A Feast for Crows, Chapter 30, Jaime IV.
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 32.2 So Spake Martin: The Baratheon Brothers (September 11, 1999)
- ↑ 33.0 33.1 33.2 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 2, Catelyn I.
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 28, Cersei VI.
- ↑ See the Stannis Baratheon calculation.
- ↑ See the Renly Baratheon calculation.
- ↑ 37.0 37.1 37.2 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 54, Davos V.
- ↑ 38.0 38.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 67, Jaime VIII.
- ↑ A Storm of Swords, Chapter 24, Bran II.
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 The World of Ice & Fire, The Fall of the Dragons: The Year of the False Spring.
- ↑ A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 9, Davos I.
- ↑ 42.0 42.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 36, Davos IV.
- ↑ A Storm of Swords, Chapter 19, Tyrion III.
- ↑ A Dance with Dragons, Epilogue.
- ↑ A Feast for Crows, Chapter 14, Brienne III.
- ↑ 46.0 46.1 46.2 46.3 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 29, Arya V.
- ↑ 47.0 47.1 47.2 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 61, The Griffin Reborn.
- ↑ 48.0 48.1 48.2 48.3 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 37, Jaime V.
- ↑ So Spake Martin: US Signing Tour (Huntington Beach, CA) (November 19, 2005)
- ↑ A Feast for Crows, Chapter 35, Samwell IV.
- ↑ A Clash of Kings, Chapter 22, Catelyn II.
- ↑ A Game of Thrones, Chapter 15, Sansa I.
- ↑ A Clash of Kings, Chapter 55, Catelyn VII.
- ↑ A Game of Thrones, Chapter 3, Daenerys I.
- ↑ 55.0 55.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 25, Tyrion VI.
- ↑ A Storm of Swords, Chapter 53, Tyrion VI.
- ↑ See the calculation for Cersei Lannister's wedding to Robert I Baratheon
- ↑ A Game of Thrones, Chapter 8, Bran II.
- ↑ A Feast for Crows, Chapter 17, Cersei IV.
- ↑ A Feast for Crows, Chapter 26, Samwell III.
- ↑ See the calculations for Joffrey Baratheon, Myrcella Baratheon, and Tommen Baratheon
- ↑ 62.0 62.1 62.2 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 52, Sansa IV.
- ↑ The World of Ice & Fire, The Iron Islands: The Old Way and the New.
- ↑ A Clash of Kings, Chapter 12, Daenerys I.
- ↑ 65.0 65.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 6, Jon I.
- ↑ A Storm of Swords, Chapter 52, Arya XI.
- ↑ A Storm of Swords, Chapter 63, Davos VI.
- ↑ A Feast for Crows, Chapter 36, Cersei VIII.
- ↑ A Clash of Kings, Chapter 15, Tyrion III.
- ↑ A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 17, Jon IV.
- ↑ A Game of Thrones, Chapter 6, Catelyn II.
- ↑ A Game of Thrones, Chapter 16, Eddard III.
- ↑ A Game of Thrones, Chapter 29, Sansa II.
- ↑ A Game of Thrones, Chapter 49, Eddard XIV.
- ↑ A Game of Thrones, Chapter 51, Sansa IV.
- ↑ A Game of Thrones, Chapter 57, Sansa V.
- ↑ A Clash of Kings, Chapter 23, Jon III.
- ↑ 78.0 78.1 Margaery Tyrell married 1st Renly, 2nd Joffrey, 3rd Tommen
- ↑ A Feast for Crows, Chapter 13, The Soiled Knight.
- ↑ A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 42, The King's Prize.
- ↑ So Spake Martin: Historical Influences, June 20, 2001