Dothraki language

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The Dothraki language, is the language of the Dothraki, the indigenous nomadic horse people that roam the Dothraki Sea. It is known to be a rough, harsh language.[1][2][3]

Language

Dothraki is the language spoken by the Dothraki, the indigenous nomadic horse people. Only few terms and translations are known from this language, as George R.R. Martin has not developed the actual language. On the developing of languages for A Song of Ice and Fire, the author stated:

"I don't have a whole imaginary language in my desk here, the way Tolkien did."

Tolkien was a philologist, and an Oxford don, and could spend decades laboriously inventing Elvish in all its detail. I, alas, am only a hardworking SF and fantasy novel, and I don't have his gift for languages. That is to say, I have not actually created a Valyrian language. The best I could do was try to sketch in each of the chief tongues of my imaginary world in broad strokes, and give them each their characteristic sounds and spellings.[4]

HBO's TV series Game of Thrones, on the other hand, has developed an actual spoken Dothraki language. This language takes cues from the known Dothraki words used in the published material, and expands greatly upon it.

Known terms and titles

A khal is the leader of a khalasar, a nomadic horde of Dothraki. A Khal's wife is called a khaleesi, and his heir is known as a khalakka.[5] A khal has his trusted companions and guards, his bloodriders, known as the ko's. Thus, the khal is protected by his captains, called kos, whereas the khaleesi is protected by her own guards, her khas.[3][6][5][7] A ko can have a khas serve under him.[3]

When a khal dies, his khaleesi joins the dosh khaleen in the only true city the Dothraki have, Vaes Dothrak.[5]

Dothraki use the terms "it is known" frequently.[3][6][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] Bloodriders are referred to as “blood of my blood”.[2][5] Daenerys Targaryen and Khal Drogo refer to each other as "my sun-and-stars" and "moon of my life".[3][5][7][15][16][17][18] It is unknown whether these expressions are commonly used amongst the Dothraki.

Known translations

Several names of cities, lands and others are described in the published material:

Dothraki Translation Notes
Adakhakileki[19] The Cannibals A ruined city with unknown origins
Haesh Rakhi[3] Lamb Men The Dothraki name for the Lhazareen
Khalakka dothrae[15] The prince is riding
Khalakka dothrae mranha[15] A prince tides inside me
Krazaaj Has[20] Sharp Mountains A Ghiscari city, currently in ruins; the Dothraki name refers to the pyramids that once stood in the city
Krazaaj Zasqa[21][22][23] White Mountains The Dothraki name for the northern portion of the great mountain chain that divides Essos, more commonly known as the Bones
Khal Rhae Mhar[5] The Sorefoot King
Khal Rhaggat[5] The Cart King
Rakh[15] A boy
Rakh haj[15] A strong boy
Rhaesh Andahli[1][24] The land of the Andals The Dothraki name for Westeros
Shierak qiya[8] Bleeding star
Vaes Aresak[25][26] City of Cowards An Ibbenese town, currently abandoned, originally called Ibbish
Vaes Athjikhari[27] City of Sickness A Sarnori city, currently in ruins, originally called Sallosh, which had also been known as the City of Scholars
Vaes Diaf[28] City of the Skull A Ghiscari city, currently in ruins, originally called Hazdahn Mo
Vaes Efe[29] City of Shackles A small Ghiscari town, currently in ruins
Vaes Graddakh[30] City of Filth A Sarnori city, currently in ruins, originally called Sarys
Vaes Jini[31] City of Goats Originally a city called Yinishar, currently in ruins
Vaes Gorqoyi[32] City of the Blood Charge Originally a city called Mardosh, which had also been known as the City of Soldiers
Vaes Khadokh[32][33] City of Corpses Originally a Valyrian colony called Essaria, currently in ruins
Vaes Khewo[34] City of Worms A Sarnori city, currently in ruins, originally called Sarnath
Vaes Leisi[35] City of Ghosts A formed settlement of the “wood walkers” from the Kingdom of the Ifequevron, currently in ruins
Vaes Leqse[36] City of Rats A Sarnori city, currently in ruins, originally called Gornath
Vaes Mejhah[37] City of Whores A small Ghiscari town, currently in ruins
Vaes Orvik[38] City of the Whip A small Qartheen city, currently in ruins; the Dothraki name refers to the great number of slaves taken when the city was destroyed.
Vaes Qosar[39] City of Spiders A Qartheen city, currently in ruins, originally called Qolahn
Vaes Shirosi[40] City of Scorpions A small Qartheen city, currently in ruins
Vaes Tolorro[41] City of Bones An abandoned city of unknown origin
Vojjor Samvi[42] The Broken Gods A Sarnori city originally called Kasath, which had also been known as the City of Caravans, currently in ruins
Yalli Qamayi[43] Wailing Children A Sarnori city originally called Sathar, which had also been known as the Waterfall City, currently in ruins

HBO’s Game of Thrones

The Dothraki language was as used in the TV series has fully been developed by David J. Peterson, a member of the Language Creation Society, for HBO's Game of Thrones. Inspiration was drawn from George R.R. Martin's description of the language, as well as from several real-life languages such as Russian, Turkish, Estonian, Inuktitut and Swahili.[44]

The Dothraki language was developed under two restrictions. The language needed to match the terms used in the books, as well, it needed to be easy to pronounce or learn by the actors. These two constraints were an influence on the grammar and phonology of the Dothraki language developed for HBO.

As of September 2011, the languages comprised 3163 words, though not all of these words are publicly known.[45]

See also

See also the following external links

References and Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 3, Daenerys I.
  2. 2.0 2.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 11, Daenerys II.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 61, Daenerys VII.
  4. So Spake Martin: Yet More Questions (July 22, 2001)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 36, Daenerys IV.
  6. 6.0 6.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 23, Daenerys III.
  7. 7.0 7.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 54, Daenerys VI.
  8. 8.0 8.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 12, Daenerys I.
  9. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 40, Daenerys III.
  10. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 57, Daenerys V.
  11. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 2, Daenerys I.
  12. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 16, Daenerys III.
  13. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 36, Daenerys VI.
  14. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 52, Daenerys IX.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 46, Daenerys V.
  16. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 64, Daenerys VIII.
  17. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 68, Daenerys IX.
  18. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 72, Daenerys X.
  19. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire,Adakhakileki.
  20. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Krazaaj Has.
  21. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Krazaaj Zasqa.
  22. The World of Ice and Fire, The Bones and Beyond.
  23. The World of Ice and Fire, Beyond the Free Cities: East of Ib.
  24. The World of Ice and Fire, Ancient History: The Arrival of the Andals.
  25. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Aresak (Ibbish).
  26. The World of Ice and Fire, Beyond the Free Cities: Ib.
  27. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Athjikhari (Sallosh).
  28. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Diaf (Hazdahn Mo).
  29. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Efe.
  30. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Graddakh (Sarys).
  31. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Jini (Yinishar).
  32. 32.0 32.1 The World of Ice and Fire, Beyond the Free Cities: The Grasslands.
  33. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Khadokh (Essaria).
  34. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Khewo (Sarnath).
  35. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Leisi.
  36. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Leqse (Gornath).
  37. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Mejhah.
  38. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Orvik.
  39. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Qosar (Qolahn).
  40. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Shirosi.
  41. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vaes Tolorro.
  42. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Vojjor Samvi (Kasath).
  43. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Yalli Qamayi (Sathar).
  44. Official HBO Press Release (April 12, 2010)
  45. The Header Script (September 21, 2011)

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