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Pronunciation guide

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The pronunciation of names in the Known World is variable. Unlike the academic J.R.R. Tolkien, who claimed to have written The Lord of the Rings series primarily for the joy of fleshing out the invented languages of Middle Earth,[1] George R.R. Martin has stated that "I don't have [Tolkien's] gift for languages";[2] that he "came to not care much about pronunciation" during college;[3] and that "you can pronounce [the names of the characters] however you like."[3][4]

Contents

Sources

Author

George Raymond Richard Martin himself is an American who was born to a family of mixed Italian and Irish ancestry and grew up in Bayonne, New Jersey. He attended college and university at Northwestern in Evanston, Illinois, and now lives in Santa Fe, New Mexico, but his accent has been described as remaining a "gravelly New Jersey" one.[5] While Westeros has regional accents, he only includes elements of them since "that way lies madness";[6] therefore, his own pronunciations are probably "wrong".[7] He agrees with those who feel English accents work better for fantasy works: "It is full of castles and lords and swords and knights and all the other trappings we associate with England in this country. It seems natural. It would be hard to do with a group of actors who had thick Southern accents".[8]

Television Show

Within the television show, accents generally reflect the region and class of the characters. (A specific class-based difference noted within the show is that the lords themselves carefully enunciate "my lord" as two words whereas commoners slur them into a monosyllabic "m'lud".[9]) Westerosi accents generally reflect those of Britain, from Northern among the First Men of the North and beyond the Wall to Welsh influence in the Vale to posh RP accents among the Andal nobility and clergy of the Westerlands and Crownlands. Essosi comprises the rest of Eurasia and characters from its regions have spoken with Mediterranean (Braavos), Germanic (Lorath), and loosely Arabic accents (Dothraki).[10] The more peculiar accents of the Essosi characters reflect that the Common Tongue of the Andals (i.e., English) is not their native language.[11] These general differences have several notable exceptions among the actors: Ned Stark's children speak with southern British accents while Samwell Tarly (from Horn Hill, south of Highgarden) speaks with John Bradley-West's Mancunian dialect. Asshai is nowhere near Lorath but Melisandre speaks with Carice van Houten's native Dutch accent.[10]

The show hired the linguist David J. Peterson to flesh out Essos's Dothraki language.[12] He then went on to create Valyrian from only three phrases appearing in the books: dracarys, valar morghulis, and valar dohaeris. He runs a blog detailing the grammar of the two languages[13] and provides translations of (and audio files for) Martin's books and the actors' lines[14] but his pronunciations are not necessarily canonical: showrunners opted against his pronunciation of khaleesi, actors change phrasings and vocalizations, and editors clip sentences during post-production.[12]

Audio Books

All of the audiobooks of the series have now been read by Roy Dotrice, OBE, the British actor who played Hallyne the Pyromancer in season 2 of the television show. Owing to scheduling issues, A Feast for Crows was also initially read by John Lee, who speaks an Irish-tinged British English.[15] Martin credited the audiobooks with having consulted him on most of the 'hard' names and getting them right, but noted that they "then went and got all the easy ones wrong".[7]

Guide

For help understanding the pronunciations, see IPA for English[16] and the pronunciation respelling key at Wikipedia.[17] For further information on dialectical differences, see IPA for English dialects.

The following abbreviations are employed:

Given Names

Aegon hbo ['ɛɡɔn] eg-on
hbo ['eɪɡɔn] ay-gon

Aemon grrm[18] ['eɪmɒn] ay-mon

Aenys rd ['eɪnɪs] ay-nis

Aerion grrm[18] ['ɑɹiɒn] ar-ee-on

Aeron ['ɛəɹən] air-ən, like Aaron

Aerys hbo[19] ['eɪɹiz] err-eez

Alliser hbo[19] ['ælɪsəɹ] al-iss-er

Areo grrm[20] ['ɑɹiəʊ] ar-ee-oh

Arya grrm[18][21][22][23] & hbo[19] ['ɑɹjə] ar-yə, like 'are ya'

Arys grrm[18] ['ɛəɹɪs] air-iss

Asha hbo ['jæɹə] ya-ra

Baelor hbo[19] ['beɪlɔɹ] bay-lor

Balerion grrm[18] [bɑ'lɛəriɒn] bah-lair-ee-on

Balon grrm[18] ['bælɒn] bal-on

Barristan hbo[19] ['bɛəɹɪstɪn] bair-iss-tin, like bear

Benjen grrm[24] ['bɛndʒɛn] ben-jen
hbo[19] ['bɛndʒɪn] ben-jin

Bran grrm[25][18] [bɹæːn] bran

Brienne grrm[26] [bɹi'ɛəni] bree-an-ee
grrm[4][23] [bɹi'əni] bree-ə-nee
grrm[27] [bɹi'ɑn] bree-an
hbo & rd [bɹi'ɛn] bree-en
rd [bɹaɪ'i:n] bry-een

Caleotte grrm[20] ['kæliɒt] kal-ee-aht

Catelyn grrm[18][28][29][30] ['kætəlɪn] kat-ə-lin
grrm[31] & hbo[19] ['kætlɪn] kat-lin

Cersei grrm[26][18][30][24][23] ['sɜɹseɪ] serr-say
hbo[19] ['sɜɹsi] serr-see
rd ['sɜ:si] suh-see
jl ['sɪəseɪ] sih-ə-say

Chataya grrm[32] shə-ty-yə

Ch'Vyalthan got[33] ʃ(ə)ˈviˌəlθən sh(ə)-vy-al-thən

Daenerys grrm[26][7] & hbo[19] [də'nɛəɹɪs] də-nair-iss
grrm[23] [deɪn'ɛəɹɪs] dayn-air-iss

Damphair grrm[34] & jl ['dæmphɛəɹ] damp-hair
rd ['dæmfɛəɹ] dam-fair

Dany grrm[26][18] ['dæni] dan-nee, like Danny

Davos grrm[26][31][27] ['dɑːvoʊs] dah-vohs

Dolorous grrm[35] ['dɒləɹəs] dol-ər-əs, like dollar

Doran grrm[20][36] [dəʊ'ɹæn] doh-ran

Drogo hbo[19] ['dɹoʊɡoʊ] droh-goh


Eddard hbo[19] ['ɛdɑɹd] ed-dard

Elia grrm[36] el-lee-ə

Euron grrm[18] ['jʌɹɒn] yur-on, like yer on
rd [jɔːɒn] yawr-on, like British you're on

Gendry hbo[19] ['ɡɪndɹi] ghin-dree
rd ['dʒɪndɹi] jin-dree

Gregor hbo[19] [ɡrə'gɔɹ] grə-gor

Hodor grrm[4] & hbo[19] ['hoʊdɔɹ] hoh-dor

Hoster hbo[19] ['hɒstəɹ] hoss-ter

Illyrio hbo[19] [ɪ'liɹioʊ] il-leer-ee-oh

Ilyn hbo[19] ['ɪlɪn] il-in

Irri hbo[19] ['aɪɹi] eye-ree

Jaime grrm[26][18][27][30][21][7][23] & hbo ['dʒeɪmi] jay‑mee, like Jamie

Janos hbo[19] ['dʒænoʊs] ja-nohs

Jeor hbo[19] ['dʒiɔɹ] jee-or

Jeyne grrm[37][18] [dʒeɪn] jayn, like Jane

Joffrey grrm[18] & hbo[19] ['dʒɒfɹi] joff-ree

Jojen ['dʒəʊdʒən] joh-jən

Jon grrm[26] & hbo [dʒɒn] jon, like John

Jonquil grrm[35] ['dʒɒnkɪl] jon-kil

Jorah hbo[19] ['dʒɔɹə] jor

Jory grrm[27] & hbo[19] ['dʒɔɹi] jor-ee

Loras grrm[27] ['lɔɹɑs] lor-as
hbo[19] ['lɔɹəs] lor-əs

Luwin hbo[19] ['luːwɪn] loo-win

Lyanna grrm[31] ly-an-ə

Lysa grrm[24] [laɪsɑː] ly-sah
hbo[19] ['laɪsə] ly-sə

Mance grrm[38] [mæns] mans, like manse

Margaery grrm[27] & rd [mɑɹdʒəɹi] mar-jə-ree, like Margery

Melisandre grrm[27] ['mɛlɪˌsændrə] mel-ih-san-drə

Meraxes grrm[18] [məɹ'ɑksiz] mər-ahk-seez

Missandei grrm[31] ['misɑndeɪ] meess-ahn-day

Moqorro grrm[18] ['moʊkʰɔroʊ] moh-kor-roh

Mordane hbo[19] ['mɔrdeɪn] mor-dayn

Myrcella grrm[39] & hbo[19] [məɹ'sɛlə] mər-sel

Ned grrm[27][30] & hbo [nɛd] ned

Nymeria hbo[19] [ni'miɹiə] ny-meer-ee-ə

Oberyn hbo ['oʊbəɹɪn] oh-bə-rin

Petyr grrm[40] & hbo[19] ['pi:təɹ] pee-tər, like Peter
rd [pɪ'taɪəɹ] pih-ty-ər, like tyre
jl [pə'tɪɹ] pə-tir

Pyat grrm[39] ['piæt] pee-at

Pycelle hbo[19] ['pisɛl] py-sel

Pyp hbo[19] [pɪp] pip

Qotho hbo[19] ['kwoʊθoʊ] kwoh-thoh

Qyburn hbo ['kaɪbʌɹn] ky-burn

Renly grrm[27] & hbo[19] ['ɹɪnli] rin-lee

Rhaegar grrm[41] & hbo[19] ['ɹeɪgɑɹ] ray-gar

Rickon grrm[26] & hbo[19] ['ɹɪkɒn] rik-on

R'hllor grrm[42][43] [ɹəlɔr] rə-lor

Robb grrm[30][18] & hbo[19] [ɹɑb] rob

Rodrik hbo[19] ['ɹɑːdɹɪk] rah-drik

Samwell hbo[19] ['sæmwɛl] sam-wel

Sandor hbo[19] [sændɔɹ] san-dor[45]

Sansa grrm[31] ['sɔːnsə] sawn-sə
grrm[21][23] & hbo ['sænsə] san-sə
hbo[19] ['sɑːnsə] sahn-sə
hbo ['sænzə] san-zə

Stannis grrm[38][27] ['stænɪs] stan-iss

Syrio hbo[19] ['siɹioʊ] seer-ee-oh

Theon hbo[19] ['θiɒn] thee-on

Tobho grrm[35] [toʊ:'boʊ] toh-boh

Tommen grrm[20][31] ['toʊmən] tohm‑ən, like omen[32]
hbo[19] ['tɑːmən] tah-mən, like ramen
rd & jl ['tɒmən] tom-ən, like common

Tyrion grrm[26][18][30][21][24][23] & hbo[19] ['tɪəɹiən] teer-ee-ən

Tysha grrm[44] ['tɪʃə] tish
hbo ['taɪʃə] ty-shə

Tywin grrm[21][28] & hbo[19] ['taɪwɪn] ty-win

Varamyr grrm[38] ['væɹəmiɹ] var-ə-meer

Varys grrm[31] ['væɹʌs] var-us
hbo[19] ['vɛəɹɪs] vair-iss

Vhagar grrm[18] ['veɪgɑr] vay-gar

Victarion grrm[18] [vɪk'tɛəɹiɑn] vik-tair-ee-ahn

Viserys hbo[19] [vɪ'sɛːɹɪs] vih-serr-iss

Walder hbo[19] ['wɔldəɹ] wal-dər

Waymar hbo[19] ['weɪmɑɹ] way-mar

Wulfe grrm[18] ['wʊlf] wuulf, like wolf

Xaro Xhoan hbo ['zaːɹəʊ 'zəʊ.æn] zah-roh zoh-an

Ygritte grrm[27] ['igɹɪt] ee-grit, like egret

Yoren hbo[19] ['jɔəɹɪn] yor-in, like you're in

Houses and Surnames

Arryn hbo[19] ['ɛəɹɪn] air-in

Baelish hbo[19] ['beɪlɪʃ] bay-lish

Baratheon grrm[30][18] [bɑ'ɹæθiɒn] bah-ra-thee-on
hbo[19] [bə'ɹæθiən] bə-rath-ee-ən

Cassel hbo[19] [kəs'ɛl] kəs-el

Clegane hbo[19] [klɪ'ɡeɪn] clih-gayn

Daxos hbo ['dɒksoʊs] dok-sohs

Forel hbo[19] [fɔɹ'ɛl] for-el

Frey grrm[35] & hbo [fɹeɪ] fray

Greyjoy grrm[18] & hbo[19] ['ɡɹeɪdʒɔɪ] gray-joy

Hotah grrm[20] ['həʊtɑː] hoh-tah

Lannister grrm[26][18] & hbo[19] ['lænɪstəɹ] lan-iss-tər

Mormont hbo[19] ['mɔrmɒnt] mor-mont

Payne hbo[19] [peɪn] payn, like pain

Rayder grrm[38] [ɹeɪdəɹ] ray-dər, like raider

Royce hbo[19] ['ɹɔɪs] like Rolls Royce

Seaworth grrm[27] ['siwəɹθ] see-wərth

Selmy hbo[19] ['sɛlmi] sel-mee, like sell me

Slynt hbo[19] [slɪnt] slint

Snow grrm[30] & hbo [snoʊ] snoh, like snow

Stark grrm[26][18] & hbo[19] [stɑɹk] stark

Targaryen grrm[26][28][7][18] & hbo[19] [tɑɹ'gɛəɹiən] tar-gair-ee-ən

Tarly hbo[19] ['tæɹli] tar-lee

Thorne hbo[19] ['θɔɹn] thorn

Tully grrm[30] & hbo[19] ['tʌli] tul-ee

Tyrell grrm[27] & hbo ['tirɛl] ty-rel
hbo[19] ['tɪrʌl] tih-rul

Westerling grrm[18] ['wɛstəɹliŋ] wes-ter-leeng

Places and Peoples

Andals grrm[25] [æn'dəlz] an-dəlz
hbo[19] ['ændælz] an-dalz

Asshai hbo[19] [ə'ʃaɪ] ə-shy
rd [a'ʃaɪ] a-shy
jl ['aʃaɪ] ash-eye

Astapor grrm[18] [ɑː'stɑpɔɹ] ah-stah-por

Blackwater grrm[27] ['blækˌwɑtəɹ] brak-wah-tər

Braavos hbo[19] ['bɹɑːvoʊs] brah-vohs

Moat Cailin grrm[31] moht kah-lan

Casterly Rock grrm[27] ['kæstəɹli rɑk] ka-stər-lee rok

Dyre Den grrm[46] [daɪ̯əɹ dɛn] dy-ər den

Dothraki grrm[25] [dɒθ'rækaɪ] doth-ra-kai
grrm[39] [dɒθ'ræki] doth-ra-kee
hbo[19] [dɒθ'ræki] doth-rak-ee

Essos hbo[19] ['ɛsoʊs] ess-ohs

The Eyrie hbo[19] ['ɪəri] eer-ee, like eerie

Ghis grrm[39] geess, like geese

Harrenhal hbo[19] ['hɛəɹɪnhɑːl] hair-in-hahl

Highgarden grrm[27] ['haɪˌgɑɹdɪn] hy-gar-din

Isle of Cedars grrm[18] ['aɪəl əv sidəɹs] eye-əl əv see-dərs

Lys grrm[44] [lis] leess

Meereen grrm[18] [mə'ɹin] mə-reen, similar to marine

Myr grrm ['maɪəɹ] my-ər, like mire

Pentos hbo[19] ['pɛntoʊs] pen-tohs

Pyke grrm[18] ['paɪk] pyk

Qarth grrm[18] [kɔrθ] korth
hbo[19] [kwɑrθ] kwarth
hbo [xɑrθ] kharth

sept hbo[19] [sɛpt] sept

Tyrosh grrm[44] ty-rosh

Vaes Dothrak hbo[19] ['viɪs dɒθ'ræk] vy-iss doth-rak

Valyria grrm[18] [væ'lɛəɹiə] va-lair-ee-ə
hbo[19] ['vəliɹiə] və-leer-ee-ə

Westeros grrm[26][25] ['wɛstəɹoʊs] wes-tər-ohs
hbo[19] ['wɛstɛɹoʊs] wes-te-rohs

Old and Great Wyk grrm[18] ['wɪk] wik

Winterfell grrm[18] [ˈwɪnˌtəɹfɛl] win-tər-fel

Yunkai grrm[18] ['jʌnkaɪ] yun-kai

Titles

Khal hbo[19] ['xɑl] khahl
rd ['kɑɹl] karl, like Carl

Khaleesi grrm[31] & hbo[19] ['kɑliːsiː] kal-ee-see
hbo [kɑː'liːsiː] ka-lee-see
djp[47] [ˈxaleesi] khah-lay-ay-see

Maester grrm[18][24][41][31][7] & hbo[19] ['meɪstəɹ] may-stər
hbo ['meɪstɝː] may-sterr

Septa hbo[19] ['sɛptə] sep-tə

Ser grrm[18][7] [sɛɹ] serr, like sir
hbo[19] [sɛəɹ] sair

External links

References and Notes

  1. Peterson, Britt. "Yes, Writing Languages for 'Game of Thrones' Is a Real Job". Boston Globe, 6 Apr 2014. Accessed 2 May 2014.
  2. Amoka. "Yet More Questions". The Citadel, 22 July 2001. Accessed 1 May 2014.
  3. 3.0 3.1 E.E. Knight. "So Spake Martin: Odyssey Con 2008 (Madison, Wi)". The Citadel, 4–6 Apr 2008.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Nazfyratu. "US Signing Tour (New York City, NY)". The Citadel, 15 Nov 2005. Accessed 1 May 2014.
  5. Salter, Jessica. "Game of Thrones: Interview with George RR Martin". The Telegraph, 25 Mar 2013. Accessed 2 May 2014.
  6. "So Spake Martin: Cyvasse, Accents, Historical Mysteries, and Dornish Nationalism". The Citadel, 20 Apr 2008.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 Oathkeeper. "So Spake Martin: US Signing Tour (Albuquerque, NM)". The Citadel, 29 Nov 2005.
  8. Wheeler, Brian. "Why Are Fantasy World Accents British?" BBC News Magazine, 30 Mar 2012. Accessed 2 May 2014.
  9. Tywin Lannister to Arya Stark in "A Man without Honor".
  10. 10.0 10.1 Read, Max. "What Is Going on with the Accents in Game of Thrones?". Gawker, 6 May 2013. Accessed 1 May 2014.
  11. Daenerys's request that leaders of her army begin learning the language is a minor plot point in "Oathkeeper".
  12. 12.0 12.1 Martin, Denise. "Learn to Speak Dothraki and Valyrian from the Man who Invented Them for Game of Thrones". Vulture, 24 Apr 2013. Accessed 1 May 2014.
  13. Peterson, David. Dothraki: A Language of Fire and Blood. Accessed 1 May 2014.
  14. Tharoor, Ishaan. "Tongues of Ice and Fire: Creating the Languages in Game of Thrones". Time, 3 May 2013. Accessed 2 May 2014.
  15. Narrator Profile: John Lee". AudioFile Magazine. Accessed 2 May 2014.
  16. For further information on IPA, see Wikipedia's article on the International Phonetic Alphabet. The IPA can be somewhat non-intuitive for native English-speakers, particularly since it uses continental values for its vowels.
  17. For further information on respelling, see pronunciation respelling for English.
  18. 18.00 18.01 18.02 18.03 18.04 18.05 18.06 18.07 18.08 18.09 18.10 18.11 18.12 18.13 18.14 18.15 18.16 18.17 18.18 18.19 18.20 18.21 18.22 18.23 18.24 18.25 18.26 18.27 18.28 18.29 18.30 18.31 18.32 18.33 18.34 18.35 18.36 18.37 TIFF. "In Conversation With... George R.R. Martin", Parts 1–3. Hosted at The Citadel as "So Spake Martin", Mar 2012.
  19. 19.00 19.01 19.02 19.03 19.04 19.05 19.06 19.07 19.08 19.09 19.10 19.11 19.12 19.13 19.14 19.15 19.16 19.17 19.18 19.19 19.20 19.21 19.22 19.23 19.24 19.25 19.26 19.27 19.28 19.29 19.30 19.31 19.32 19.33 19.34 19.35 19.36 19.37 19.38 19.39 19.40 19.41 19.42 19.43 19.44 19.45 19.46 19.47 19.48 19.49 19.50 19.51 19.52 19.53 19.54 19.55 19.56 19.57 19.58 19.59 19.60 19.61 19.62 19.63 19.64 19.65 19.66 19.67 19.68 19.69 19.70 19.71 19.72 19.73 19.74 19.75 19.76 19.77 19.78 19.79 19.80 19.81 19.82 19.83 19.84 19.85 19.86 19.87 Making Game of Thrones. "Inside the Series: Official Pronunciation Guide for 'Game of Thrones'". HBO, 11 Feb 2011.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 Interview with George R.R. Martin. Canadian Broadcast Channel.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 Fantasy Flight Games. "So Spake Martin: Days of Ice and Fire Official Report". The Citadel. 12 Nov 2010.
  22. "So Spake Martin: Cersei and Homer". The Citadel, 10 Sept 1999.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 Strangerwithmyface. "So Spake Martin: US Signing Tour (New York, NY)". The Citadel, 15 Nov 2005.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 Revanshe. "So Spake Martin: Various Pronunciations". The Citadel, 24 Oct 1998.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 The Bear Swarm! Podcast, Episode 136 – George R.R. Martin and a Song of Ice and Fire. 22 Nov 2010.
  26. 26.00 26.01 26.02 26.03 26.04 26.05 26.06 26.07 26.08 26.09 26.10 26.11 26.12 Interview with George R.R. Martin. Random House, Nov 2005.
  27. 27.00 27.01 27.02 27.03 27.04 27.05 27.06 27.07 27.08 27.09 27.10 27.11 27.12 27.13 27.14 27.15 TIFF. "Higher Learning: Master Class with George R.R. Martin". TIFF, 13 Dec 2012.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Riale. "So Spake Martin: Cody's Signing (Berkley, Ca)". The Citadel, 11 Nov 2000.
  29. Mich. "So Spake Martin: Canadian Signing Tour (Toronto)". The Citadel, 9 Jan 2006.
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 30.5 30.6 30.7 30.8 Martin, George R.R. Not a Blog: "Inside Game of Thrones". 5 Dec 2010.
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 31.6 31.7 31.8 31.9 Lyanna Wolfgirl. "Thus Spake Martin: Torcon (Toronto, Canada)". The Citadel, 28 Aug–1 Sept 2003.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Mouse. "So Spake Martin: Torcon (Toronto, Canada)". The Citadel, 28 Aug–1 Sept 2003.
  33. Game of Thrones. "The Prince of Winterfell". HBO, 20 May 2012.
  34. Amazon Books. "George R.R. Martin Answers Facebook Fans' Questions". YouTube, 12 Jan 2012.
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 Bronn Stone. "So Spake Martin: Torcon (Toronto, Canada)". The Citadel, 28 Aug–1 Sept 2003.
  36. 36.0 36.1 Bronn Stone. "So Spake Martin: Conquest (Kansas City, Mo)". The Citadel, 27 May 2005.
  37. Martin, George R.R. A Dance with Dragons. 2011.
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 Lord Mountain Goat. "Post-Reading Q&A Video (Worldcon)". The Citadel, 3 Sept 2010.
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 Elio M. García. "So Spake Martin: Interaction (Glasgow, Scotland)". The Citadel, 4–8 Aug 2005.
  40. "So Spake Martin: To Be Continued (Chicago, Il)". The Citadel, 6–8 May 2005.
  41. 41.0 41.1 "So Spake Martin: Pronunciations". The Citadel, 8 May 1999.
  42. Martin, George R.R. A Storm of Swords. 2000
  43. Martin, George R.R. Not a Blog: Comment. 21 Jan 2014.
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 Odiedragon. "So Spake Martin: To Be Continued (Chicago, Il)". The Citadel, 6–8 May 2005.
  45. The resemblance to a Hungarian name was unintentional.[44]
  46. Martin, George R.R. Not a Blog: Comment. 1 Nov 2011.
  47. Peterson, David. Dothraki: "Developing Canon". 18 Mar 2012.
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