Jon Snow/Theories

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One of the earliest introduced mysteries in A Song of Ice and Fire is the identity of Jon Snow's mother. On several occasions, the topic is brought to the reader's attention in text, although several characters provide different possibilities. Jon himself is unaware of his mother's identity, and does not even know whether she had been highborn or lowborn.[1] Within the books, numerous possibilities have been suggested by characters, and among readers of the series Jon Snow's parentage still remains a topic of discussion.

Although Jon is identified as Lord Eddard Stark's son within the A Song of Ice and Fire novels, the fandom has speculated on his paternity as well. As Jon’s appearance is so Stark-like,[2] the likelihood that none of his parents is a Stark appears unlikely. As such, besides Eddard, the fandom has frequently suggested either Eddard’s older brother Brandon or younger sister Lyanna as one of Jon’s parents.

Lastly, Jon's moment of birth can be determined fairly well. According to George R. R. Martin, “[…] Jon was not born "more than 1 year" before Dany... probably closer to eight or nine months or thereabouts.”[3] Daenerys Targaryen, in turn, was born nine months after her mother Rhaella and brother Viserys fled King’s Landing at the end of Robert's Rebellion.[4] Rhaella and Viserys fled at some point during the two-week period[N 1] between the Battle of the Trident and the Sack of King’s Landing.[5] This information indicates that Jon was born towards the end of the rebellion. As the rebellion lasted "close to a year",[6] Jon appears to have been conceived early on during the war.

This page summarizes the possible identities of Jon Snow’s parents, both as suggested in the novels and as most frequently suggested by the fandom.

Ashara Dayne

Ashara Dayne and Eddard Stark

The earliest potential mother of Jon is identified by Catelyn Stark, the wife of Lord Eddard Stark. She recalls having heard, following the conclusion of Robert's Rebellion, tales her maids had learned from her husband's soldiers about Lady Ashara Dayne of Starfall. Although Catelyn eventually confronted Eddard, he refused to confirm Ashara as Jon's mother, and silenced the stories about Ashara at Winterfell.[2] Cersei Lannister, when confronting Eddard about his bastard son, offers several possibilities for Jon's mother, including Ashara.[7]

Lord Edric Dayne, the young Lord of Starfall, tells Arya Stark how his aunt Allyria Dayne has told him that "Lady Ashara and your father fell in love at Harrenhal".[8] According to Harwin, a member of the household guard of Lord Eddard Stark, he heard the same story at Winterfell when he was just a young boy. He states "I doubt there's any truth to it. But if there is, what of it? When Ned met this Dornish lady, his brother Brandon was still alive, and it was him betrothed to Lady Catelyn, so there's no stain on your father's honor. There's nought like a tourney to make the blood run hot, so maybe some words were whispered in a tent of a night, who can say? Words or kisses, maybe more, but where's the harm in that? Spring had come, or so they thought, and neither one of them was pledged".[8] Meera and Jojen Reed tell Bran Stark about the tourney at Harrenhal where Eddard and Ashara met, including how Ashara danced with several men, including Eddard, although it is cited that Eddard was too shy to ask Ashara to dance with him, and only did so after his brother Brandon asked on his behalf.[9]

Besides the tourney in 281 AC, Eddard and Ashara are known to have met again following the conclusion of Robert's Rebellion, two years later, when Eddard went to Starfall after the combat at the tower of joy to return Dawn, the greatsword of Ser Arthur Dayne, who he had slain in combat.[2][10] Some time afterwards, Ashara jumped from the top of the Palestone Sword, one of the towers of Starfall, into the sea.[8] Several reasons are given for Ashara's motivation: a broken heart,[8] because of her stillborn child,[11] because of a stolen child,[7] or due to grief over Arthur's death.[8] Her body was never found.[12]

Ashara's pregnancy prior to her death, her known associations with at least two Starks, and the timing of Jon Snow's appearance in relation to Ashara's death all argue in favor for the possibility of Ashara Dayne as Jon's mother.


Supporting evidence

Frequently used arguments in favor of Eddard and Ashara being Jon's parents include:

  • Eddard and Ashara are not only known to have interacted at Harrenhal, but are said to have been in love.[8]
  • According to Robert I Baratheon, Jon Snow's mother must have been "a rare wench if she could make Lord Eddard Stark forget his honor, even for an hour". Ashara, described as a beautiful woman with haunting purple eyes,[2][11] would be a good candidate for the "rare wench".
  • At the tourney at Harrenhal, Ashara is said to have "looked" at "Stark",[11] although it is unclear what exactly is meant by this.


Counter-evidence

The following counter-arguments regarding Eddard as the father of Ashara's child are most frequently cited:

  • The only known interactions of Eddard and Ashara were the tourney at Harrenhal, which took place in 281 AC, and following the conclusion of Robert's Rebellion in late 283 AC. Barristan Selmy implies that Ashara's childbirth took place not long before her suicide,[11] which would mean her child had been conceived about a year after the tourney. In addition, Jon Snow is known to have been conceived during Robert's Rebellion, and Eddard and Ashara do not seem to have been in each other's vicinity at the time of conception. The possibility that Jon was conceived at Harrenhal and was simply passed off as younger than he truly is appears unlikely, as this would make him more than a year older than Robb Stark, who was born shortly before the war ended.[13] As the infant Jon was believed younger than the infant Robb, it seems impossible for Jon to have been more than a year old, while Robb was still several weeks or months of age.
    • According to George R. R. Martin, Ashara "was not nailed to the floor in Starfall",[14] leaving open the possibility that Ashara met Eddard at an unknown location during the war, around the time of Jon's conception.
  • If Ashara is Jon's mother, Eddard would have no reason to take the child from its mother, nor keep her identity a secret from everyone, including Jon.
  • At Starfall, despite the beliefs that Ashara and Eddard had been in love, Ashara is not believed to be Jon's mother.[8] If Ashara had indeed been Jon's mother, it could be expected at least someone at Starfall would be aware of this.
  • Eddard's honor is frequently cited,[15][7][16][17][18] and when his son Robb sleeps with a girl, he decides to take her to wife the next day despite already being betrothed, to protect her honor while sacrificing his own.[19][20] To this, Tyrion Lannister claims that "it would have been kinder to leave her with a bastard in the belly", but Tywin Lannister states that "Robb Stark is his father's son",[20] implying that Eddard too would have wed a girl had he deflowered her. This would rule out fathering Jon on Ashara before the start of the war, when Eddard was neither betrothed nor married, while his famous honor makes it unlikely, although not impossible, that he would have fathered a bastard on a woman after his marriage to Catelyn, which is what he claims happened.[6]
  • Barristan Selmy recalls that Ashara was "dishonored" at the tourney at Harrenhal, and wonders if she might have "looked at me instead of Stark" had he been able to crown her the queen of love and beauty at the tourney.[11] Whether this "Stark" was the man to dishonor Ashara, or whether Ashara turned to "Stark" for help after she had been dishonored, is unclear.
  • Edric Dayne, born several years after Ashara's death, is nicknamed "Ned", similar to Eddard Stark's nickname. If Eddard had fathered a bastard on Ashara and taken her child away from her, causing her suicide, it would seem unlikely that the Daynes would name their heir after Eddard, after a fashion.

Ashara Dayne and Brandon Stark

Although Eddard Stark has been brought up in association with Ashara Dayne during the novels, readers of A Song of Ice and Fire have suggested Eddard's older brother Brandon Stark as Ashara's lover, and subsequently the potential father of her child, instead, and consider it the second most likely possibility for the identities of Jon's parents[N 2]


Supporting evidence

Frequently used arguments in favor of a relationship between Brandon and Ashara include:

  • Brandon's personality. According to Lady Barbrey Dustin, Brandon's former lover, Brandon was "never shy about taking what he wanted".[21] As Eddard was too shy to even speak with Ashara at the tourney,[9] and Benjen was still quite young, Brandon is often cited as the most likely brother to have slept with Ashara, if any Stark had indeed done so. In addition, Brandon saw no issue in claiming Berbrey's maidenhead,[21] and although he had been betrothed to Catelyn Tully by the time of the tourney for several years,[N 3] Barbrey claims Brandon "never wanted" the marriage.[21]
    • Barristan Selmy recalls that Ashara had been "dishonored" by a man at Harrenhal, although he does not reveal the man's identity.[11] In addition, Barristan wonders whether Ashara, had he won the tourney and crowned her the queen of love and beauty, might "have looked to me instead of Stark",[11] suggesting Ashara turned to one of the Starks after the final tilts had taken place.[11] By the account as told by Meera Reed, Brandon, Eddard, and Benjen Stark were all present during the tourney.[9] Whether this "Stark" was the man to dishonor Ashara, or whether Ashara turned to "Stark" for help after she had been dishonored, is unclear. But if "Stark" was the person who dishonored Ashara, Brandon's history with Barbrey suggests him as a candidate, while Eddard's honor and Benjen's youth argue against them.


Counter-evidence

The following counter-arguments are most frequently cited:

  • According to George R. R. Martin, "Brandon died before he had sons".[22]
    • While this would rule out Brandon as Jon's father, it would still be possible for Brandon to have been Ashara's lover.
  • As Jon's birth has been established as occurring near the end of Robert's Rebellion, or even in the weeks after the end of the war, Brandon as Jon's father becomes impossible. Brandon died before the war began,[23] and considering that the war lasted more than nine months, any child he would have fathered before his death would have been born months before the war was done. In addition, Brandon spend the last weeks or months of his life in captivity,[24] making it unlikely he impregnated a woman during this time.

Wylla

Wylla and Eddard Stark

The second potential mother of Jon Snow suggested in the text is a woman named Wylla. While traveling from Winterfell to King's Landing, King Robert I Baratheon recalls Eddard Stark bedding a girl during Robert's Rebellion, and asks Eddard for her name, referring to her as "your bastard's mother". Eddard identifies her as Wylla, but states that he "would sooner not speak of her".[6] According to Robert, Wylla was a "common girl",[6] while Sansa Stark heard whispers that Jon's mother "had been common",[25] and Cersei Lannister mentions "some Dornish peasant" as Jon's potential mother.[7] Lord Edric Dayne of Starfall tells Arya Stark that Jon's mother is Wylla, who he identifies as his former wetnurse, who served at Starfall "for years and years", since before Edric's birth.[8]

However, if the baseborn Wylla is Jon's mother, Eddard would have no reason to keep this truth from both his wife and Jon himself. While it is unknown whether Wylla already served at Starfall by the time of Jon's birth, the fact that she was at service at Starfall might be an indication that she herself is Dornish as well, although this cannot be said with certainty. Yet if she is Dornish, it would raise the question of when Eddard could have met her during the war in order to father a bastard on her after his marriage to Catelyn Tully.

The fisherman's daughter

During Robert's Rebellion Eddard Stark traveled from the Vale of Arryn to the north. Eddard crossed the Mountains of the Moon to the Fingers and hired a fisherman to bring him to White Harbor with a boat. However, they were caught by a storm on the Bite and the fisherman drowned. The fisherman's daughter brought Eddard to the Three Sisters. According to Lord Godric Borrell, it is said that Eddard "left her with a bag of silver and a bastard in her belly". Lord Borrell claims the fisherman's daughter named her bastard Jon Snow, after Jon Arryn.[26]


Counter-evidence

The following counter-arguments against this story are most frequently cited:

  • While the story as Lord Borrell tells it claims the fisherman's daughter had given Jon his name,[26] George R. R. Martin has stated that Jon had "most like" been named by Eddard Stark.[27]
  • If Eddard had fathered Jon on the fisherman's daughter, he would have done so before his marriage to Cately Tully. However, this would mean Eddard lied, for no apparent reason, when he claimed that he had fathered Jon after his wedding.[6] In addition, if the fisherman's daughter is Jon's mother, Eddard has no reason to keep her identity a secret.

Lyanna Stark

Lyanna Stark and Rhaegar Targaryen

The most popular theory regarding the identity of Jon Snow's mother is Lyanna Stark, with Prince Rhaegar Targaryen for his father.[N 4]

Lyanna was Eddard Stark's younger sister, who was betrothed to Robert Baratheon.[28] In 281 AC, Lyanna was present at the tourney at Harrenhal, where she was crowned the queen of love and beauty by Prince Rhaegar Targaryen.[16][29] The next year, Lyanna came face to face with Rhaegar ten leagues from Harrenhal,[29] and was abducted by him[30][31][32] at swordpoint,[33] according to a semi-canon source with the aid of Ser Arthur Dayne and Ser Oswell Whent, two knights of his father's Kingsguard.[34] When her brother Brandon learned about this, he rode to King's Landing, where he was arrested and charged with treason. King Aerys II Targaryen summoned Lyanna's father Rickard to court, and subsequently had both Brandon and Rickard killed. Lord Jon Arryn's response to Aerys's next demanded started Robert's Rebellion,[24][35][36] which lasted "close to a year".

Lyanna was found by Eddard after the war had ended at the tower of joy.[37] Eddard was by her side when she died, in a bed that smelled "of blood and roses".[38] Shortly before her death, fearing something unknown, Lyanna extracted a promise from Eddard.[38] Eddard brought Lyanna's remains home to Winterfell.[38][21]

The theory proposes that Jon is Lyanna's son by Rhaegar Targaryen, Lyanna's abductor. Rhaegar, who had been married to Elia Martell, had two children by his wife, but following the birth of his second child, the maesters informed him that Elia could have no more children.[39] Kevan Lannister believes that Rhaegar abducted Lyanna because he wanted more sons,[40][41] while Robert believes that Rhaegar raped Lyanna "hundreds of times".[6]

Supporting evidence

The following arguments are frequently used in favor of this theory:

  • Blue winter roses are associated in text with Lyanna, Rhaegar, death, and a newborn child:
    • Lyanna was crowned by Rhaegar at the tourney at Harrenhal using "a crown of winter roses, blue as frost".[16]
    • While in captivity, Eddard Stark dreams of Lyanna's statue in the crypts of Winterfell, where she is wearing a garland of pale blue roses, while weeping blood.[16]
    • To Robert, Eddard states that Lyanna was fond of flowers,[38] and to himself he thinks that she had loved the scent of winter roses.[16]
    • As she is dying, rose petals spill from Lyanna's palm, dead and black.[38]
    • During a fever dream about the combat at the tower of joy, Eddard dreams of a storm of rose petals blowing across a blood-streaked sky, "as blue as the eyes of death", while hearing Lyanna call out to him.[37]
    • Theon has a prophetic-like dream in which he sees Lyanna, who had never known personally, in a gown spattered with gore wearing a crown of pale blue roses.[42]
    • When Cersei Lannister tells Eddard how Robert whispered Lyanna's name in her ear during their wedding night, Eddard thinks of pale blue roses and wants to weep.[7]
    • While at the House of the Undying, Daenerys sees a vision of blue flower growing in a wall of ice.[43]
    • According to legend, Bael the Bard climbed the Wall, and traveled to Winterfell pretending to be a singer with a harp. There, he impressed Lord Brandon Stark, and was allowed to choose a reward. He requested the most beautiful flower blooming in Winterfell's gardens, and Lord Brandon agreed to offer him the most of his blue winter roses. The following morning, Bael was found to have disappeared with Lord Brandon's only daughter, a young maiden, having left the blue winter rose behind in her bed. The girl was found by Lord Stark again a year later, with the babe Bael had fathered on her, having hid in the crypts of Winterfell all that time.[44]
      • The parallel with Bael is Rhaegar, also royalty, a singer[9] and harpist,[45][46] who gave blue winter roses to a Stark and took Lord Stark's (Rickard's) only maiden daughter (Lyanna), only for her to be eventually found again by Lord Stark (by now her brother, Eddard), according to the theory with a newborn babe (Jon).
  • Eddard found Lyanna dying, stricken with a fever which had taken all of her strength,[38] in her "bed of blood".[37][16] The terms "beds of blood and pain"[47] and "bloody bed"[48] are used in further text to refer to childbirth, giving the impression that Lyanna's "bed of blood" might likewise be connected to childbirth.
  • Jon is said to resemble Arya Stark in appearance.[49][25] Arya is said to look like Lyanna,[50] thereby linking Jon's appearance to Lyanna's. The statement made by Tyrion Lannister that Jon looks so much like a Stark, and that "whoever his mother had been, she had left little of herself in her son.", would be most ironic if Jon's Stark parent was indeed Lyanna, and not Eddard.
  • According to Catelyn Stark, Eddard must have loved Jon's mother fiercely.[2] Eddard himself recalls how he had "loved [Lyanna] with all his heart".[38]
  • As she was dying, a fearful Lyanna extracted a promise from Eddard, and was only reassured when he gave her his word.[38] Eddard recalls Lyanna whispering "promise me, Ned" frequently throughout the story,[6][51][16] and at one point thinks back to "the promises he'd made Lyanna as she lay dying, and the price he'd paid to keep them".[28] At some point, Eddard recalls Robert ordering the pregnant Daenerys Targaryen slain, as well as how Robert had turned away from the corpses of the brutally murdered young children of Prince Rhaegar's by Elia Martell during the war, as well as turning away when Sansa Stark's innocent direwolf pup Lady was ordered executed. Sansa's pleading for the life of her pup makes him think of Lyanna's pleading.[52] That Robert either ordering the death of Targaryen children, or approving of the death of Targaryen children, and Robert being willing to allow an innocent pup to be killed evoke the memory of Lyanna's pleas, could suggest that Lyanna made Eddard promise to keep her child by Rhaegar safe. After all, according to Tywin Lannister "Robert's hatred for Rhaegar was scarcely a secret"[53] and according to Eddard, even fifteen years after Rhaegar's death by Robert's hand, Robert still hates him just as much as when he was still alive.[54] In addition, Robert considered Rhaegar's young children to be "dragonspawn", and saw no issue in their deaths.[6] The idea that Lyanna would fear for the life of her child by Rhaegar is more than valid, and Eddard's line of thought regarding Lyanna's promise and her pleas is argued to favor this idea. In addition, it provides Eddard with the motivation to lie about Jon's parentage, even to his new wife.
  • At the end of Robert's Rebellion, Eddard travels with six companions to the tower of joy, where they encounter three Kingsguard knights guarding the tower where Lyanna resides: Lord Commander Gerold Hightower, Oswell Whent, and Arthur Dayne.[37] In Eddard's fever dream, the three white cloaks reaffirm their loyalty to House Targaryen, before engaging in combat with the northmen.[37] A Kingsguard's duty is defending the king and obeying his commands. The king might decide to extend Kingsguard protection to others in his family, or even their mistresses and bastards.[55] The presence of the three Kingsguard knights at the tower where Lyanna was being kept has been taken to mean by supporters of the theory that Rhaegar's child by Lyanna was present at the tower. Eddard Stark considered Arthur Dayne "the finest knight" he ever saw, "a marvel, a shining lesson to the world" years after Arthur's death,[56] implying that Eddard considers Arthur's (and by default Oswell's and Gerold's) reasons for being at the tower in line with his Kingsguard vows, indicating they acted on orders given to them by a Targaryen.
    • Some supporters of the theory have even suggested the presence of the Kingsguard knights implies that Lyanna's child is considered the heir to the Iron Throne following the deaths of Aerys and Rhaegar. In this scenario, Rhaegar and Lyanna had wed before he returned to King's Landing. The Targaryen tradition of polygamous marriages would allow for this possibility.
  • Rhaegar's motivation for taking Lyanna have been argued to have two possibilities: Either because he loved Lyanna, as argued by Daenerys Targaryen,[4][57] Barristan Selmy,[11] and singers,[58] or due to prophecy. Prophecy undeniably played an important role in Rhaegar's motivations for his actions.[46][59] In the House of the Undying, Daenerys sees a vision of Rhaegar with his wife Elia shortly after the birth of their son Aegon. Rhaegar proclaims that "there must be a one more" because "the dragon has three heads".[43] Given that the maesters told Rhaegar after Aegon's birth that his wife Elia could have no more children,[39] Rhaegar could have attempted to fulfill the prophecy by having a third child with another woman. The fact that Rhaegar named the tower the "tower of joy"[37] would fit with both interpretations: either joy over being with the woman he loved, or joy over fulfilling the prophecy.
    • Eddard's proclamation of Lyanna's character[60] and her "wolf blood", which he claims brought her to an early grave,[50] could suggest Lyanna had not gone with Rhaegar against her will, although others have suggested it instead refers to another theory.
  • Bran sees a vision of his father, much younger than he had ever known him, praying in front of the weirwood tree in Winterfell's godswood, saying "… let them grow up close as brothers, with only love between them. And let my lady wife find it in her heart to forgive …"[61] Readers have suggested that this is Eddard after his return to Winterfell following Robert's Rebellion, referring to Robb and Jon with "let them grow up close as brothers", which would mean that the two boys are not brothers. Furthermore, besides his supposed affair during the first year of his marriage, the novels mention nothing that Eddard has done that could possibly require Catelyn's forgiveness.

Counter-arguments

The following counter-arguments against this theory are most frequently cited which are not connected to the text in the novels:

  • It is obvious.[62]
  • It is cliche.[62]
  • It makes Daenerys unimportant.[62]
  • It romanticizes Rhaegar and Lyanna.[62]


The following counter-arguments against this theory are most frequently cited which refer to the text in the novels:

  • Eddard Stark claims he "found himself remembering Rhaegar Targaryen" for "the first time in years",[28] which is considered odd if he had been raising Rhaegar's bastard son for years.
    • Eddard speaks of Rhaegar in earlier chapters,[38][6][60][54] and thinks about Rhaegar the chapter before the claim "for the first time in years" is made.[54]
  • If Eddard is not Jon's father, he has no reason to keep Jon's parentage a secret from his wife. Instead, he kept the identity of Jon's mother a secret, which caused a strain in his marriage to Catelyn.[2]
    • The danger Jon could be in if it was discovered that his father was Rhaegar Targaryen was not insignificant, and Eddard barely knew his wife. It would not be odd that he had kept the secret from her. Keeping Catelyn out of his secret meant keeping her from committing treason, and thus keeping her and their children safe, should his deceit ever be discovered. In addition, Jon could, due to his parentage, represent a danger to Catelyn's children. Even without having Catelyn being aware of Jon's parentage, Eddard wonders what choice Catelyn would make, if she would have to choose between the lives of her own children, or Jon.[60]
  • Eddard never thinks of Lyanna as being Jon's mother.
  • Jon does not have any of the Valyrian physical traits.
  • Eddard's honor is frequently cited,[15][7][16][17][18] Robert I Baratheon states that Eddard "never could lie for love nor honor",[60] and Sansa Stark and Olenna Tyrell agree that Eddard had a reputation for never lying.[63] Eddard personally claimed that Jon is his bastard son,[6] it will be unlikely that he lied as he is too honorable to lie.
    • Following the incident with Arya, Sansa, Joffrey Baratheon, and Nymeria near the Trident, Jory Cassel lies and claims that Nymeria ran off.[64] Eddard later informs Arya that he knows it is a lie, after which Arya confesses how she and Jory chased Nymeria away to prevent her from being killed. Eddard states that "even the lie was... not without honor".[50]

Game of Thrones

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Warning
This section discusses plot points from HBO's TV series Game of Thrones which have not or not yet featured in the novels of A Song of Ice and Fire.
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Warning
Due to deviations between the books and the TV series, the situation as presented in the TV series could differ from the situation as will be revealed in the novels


In "The Winds of Winter", the finale episode of the sixth season of HBO's TV series Game of Thrones, Jon is revealed to be the son of Lyanna Stark by Rhaegar Targaryen. The episode reveals the promise she exacted from Eddard Stark was indeed to protect her son from Robert I Baratheon, before she died at the tower of joy.[65]

In "The Dragon and the Wolf", the finale of the seventh season, Rhaegar and Lyanna are revealed to have been married, while Rhaegar's marriage to Princess Elia Martell had been annulled, making Jon a trueborn Targaryen and the heir to the Iron Throne through the most senior line.[66]

Notes

  1. Rossart was Hand for two weeks (A Feast for Crows, Jaime II). He was appointed after the Battle of the Trident (The World of Ice & Fire, The Fall of the Dragons: The End) and died during the Sack of King’s Landing (A Feast for Crows, Jaime II).
  2. 229 out of 9115 votes (2.5%) during a poll held in 2015 across five platforms (Results: Reddit, Westeros.org, Tower of the Hand, Watchers on the Wall, Facebook).
  3. Catelyn and Brandon were betrothed when Catelyn was twelve years old (A Game of Thrones, Catelyn II). As Catelyn was born in either 264 AC or 265 AC, they were betrothed in either 266 AC, 267 AC, or 268 AC.
  4. 8690 out of 9115 votes (95.0%) during a poll held in 2015 across five platforms (Results: Reddit, Westeros.org, Tower of the Hand, Watchers on the Wall, Facebook).

References

  1. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 41, Jon V.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 6, Catelyn II.
  3. So Spake Martin: Chronology (July 11, 1999)
  4. 4.0 4.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 3, Daenerys I.
  5. The World of Ice & Fire, The Fall of the Dragons: The End.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 12, Eddard II.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 45, Eddard XII.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 43, Arya VIII.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 24, Bran II.
  10. The World of Ice & Fire, Dorne: The Andals Arrive.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 67, The Kingbreaker.
  12. So Spake Martin: Soms Questions (August 23, 2000)
  13. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 63, Catelyn X.
  14. So Spake Martin: Chronology (July 11, 1999)
  15. 15.0 15.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 42, Tyrion VI.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 58, Eddard XV.
  17. 17.0 17.1 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 17, Jon IV.
  18. 18.0 18.1 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 65, Cersei II.
  19. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 14, Catelyn II.
  20. 20.0 20.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 19, Tyrion III.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 41, The Turncloak.
  22. So Spake Martin: Asshai.com Interview in Barcelona (July 28, 2012)
  23. The World of Ice & Fire, The Fall of the Dragons: Robert’s Rebellion.
  24. 24.0 24.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 55, Catelyn VII.
  25. 25.0 25.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 15, Sansa I.
  26. 26.0 26.1 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 9, Davos I.
  27. So Spake Martin: Numerous Questions (February 28, 2002)
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 35, Eddard IX.
  29. 29.0 29.1 The World of Ice & Fire, The Fall of the Dragons: The Year of the False Spring.
  30. The World of Ice & Fire, The Fall of the Dragons: Robert's Rebellion.
  31. The World of Ice & Fire, The North: The Lords of Winterfell.
  32. The World of Ice & Fire, The Fall of the Dragons: The Year of the False Spring.
  33. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 43, Daenerys VII.
  34. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Rhaegar Targaryen.
  35. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 2, Catelyn I.
  36. The World of Ice & Fire, The Fall of the Dragons: Robert's Rebellion.
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 37.4 37.5 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 39, Eddard X.
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 38.5 38.6 38.7 38.8 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 4, Eddard I.
  39. 39.0 39.1 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 61, The Griffin Reborn.
  40. A Dance with Dragons, Epilogue.
  41. A Dance with Dragons, Epilogue.
  42. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 56, Theon V.
  43. 43.0 43.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 48, Daenerys IV.
  44. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 51, Jon VI.
  45. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 63, Daenerys V.
  46. 46.0 46.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 8, Daenerys I.
  47. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 1, The Prophet.
  48. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 61, Daenerys VII.
  49. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 7, Arya I.
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 22, Arya II.
  51. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 47, Eddard XIII.
  52. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 20, Eddard IV.
  53. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 53, Tyrion VI.
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 33, Eddard VIII.
  55. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 55, The Queensguard.
  56. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 21, Bran III.
  57. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 64, Daenerys VIII.
  58. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 31, Brienne VI.
  59. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 35, Samwell IV.
  60. 60.0 60.1 60.2 60.3 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 30, Eddard VII.
  61. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 34, Bran III.
  62. 62.0 62.1 62.2 62.3 westeros.org: The Citadel - FAQ: Who are Jon Snow's parents?
  63. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 6, Sansa I.
  64. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 16, Eddard III.
  65. Game of Thrones, Season 6, "The Winds of Winter".
  66. Game of Thrones, Season 7, "The Dragon and the Wolf".