High Valyrian is a language originating from Valyria and the Valyrian Freehold. It is no longer widely spoken due to the Doom of Valyria, although there are songs and books still sung and read in it. In Westeros, highborn children, specifically the Targaryens, are taught Valyrian as a sign of their noble education. Corrupted dialects known as bastard Valyrian are spoken in the Free Cities and Slaver's Bay.
According to George R. R. Martin,
Tolkien was a philologist, and an Oxford don, and could spend decades laboriously inventing Elvish in all its detail. I, alas, am only a hardworking SF and fantasy novel[sic], and I don't have his gift for languages. That is to say, I have not actually created a Valyrian language. The best I could do was try to sketch in each of the chief tongues of my imaginary world in broad strokes, and give them each their characteristic sounds and spellings.
Velaryon first names include:
The Valyrians most likely gave Valyrian names to their dragons, as the dragons Balerion, Meraxes, Vhagar, and Syrax were named after Valyrian gods." However, not all dragons of House Targaryen had Valyrian names (e.g., Queen Alysanne Targaryen's dragon, Silverwing).
Volantis's satellite towns of Selhorys, Valysar, and Volon Therys likely have Valyrian names as well. It is also probable that Elyria, Mantarys, Oros, Tolos, Tyria, and Velos are Valyrian in name, being cities close to Old Valyria.
The word dracarys is translated as meaning "dragonfire." Obsidian is called "dragonglass" in the Common Tongue, but "frozen fire" in High Valyrian. Valonqar is the word for "little brother." High Valyrian is the most likely source language for maegi (pronounced differently from 'Maggy'), which means "wise".
The Valyrian writing system, or at least a Valyrian writing system, is described as involving glyphs. It was also probably standard practice to write on scrolls, and not in books. The glyphs can also be inscribed, as on an old Valyrian dragon horn, which, when sounded, had "every line and letter shimmering with white fire."
Bastard Valyrian includes the languages of the nine Free Cities. Each of the cities has its own dialect, and each dialect likely has its own separate derived vocabulary. Syrio Forel has an accent, the lilt of the Free Cities, Braavos perhaps, or Myr." One of the Brave Companions is described as having a "thick Myrish accent."
The Old Empire of Ghis was conquered by the Valyrian Freehold five thousand years ago, and the Ghiscari have since spoken High Valyrian. The Slaver's Bay cities of Yunkai, Meereen, and Astapor have their own versions of bastard Valyrian, which have been influenced mainly by Old Ghiscari, the ancient language of Old Ghis. Like the Free Cities, the people of the Slaver Cities use glyphs to write Valyrian.
Yunkai used to be part of the Old Empire of Ghis, and has multiple languages spoken in the city. Mhysa, Maela, Aelalla, Qathei, and Tato are given as words for "mother", but which tongue fits which word is unknown (excepting the first, which is Ghiscari).
Characters familiar with High Valyrian
- Gerris Drinkwater speaks a halting approximation of High Valyrian.
- Haldon Halfmaester
- Tyrion Lannister learned to read High Valyrian on his maester's knee.
- Quentyn Martell can read and write High Valyrian but has little practice speaking it.
- Melisandre is known to pray in High Valyrian.
- Septa Saranella tells Cersei Lannister the meaning of valonqar.
- Ser Barristan Selmy has some High Valyrian, though not as much as Daenerys.
- Arya Stark was taught High Valyrian by Maester Luwin but in Braavos the kindly man insists that she improve it.
- Sweets is fluent in High Valyrian
- Aegon Targaryen is fluent in High Valyrian.
- Daenerys Targaryen
- Samwell Tarly only has a little High Valyrian.
- The Tattered Prince says "and now we ride" to his men in a classic High Valyrian.
- The closest thing the Windblown have to a company tongue is classic High Valyrian.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 11, Daenerys II.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 60, Tyrion VIII.
- So Spake Martin: Yet More Questions, July 22, 2001
- A Clash of Kings, Chapter 6, Jon I.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 40, Bran III.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 9, Tyrion I.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 15, Davos II.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 67, Jaime VIII.
- Citadel. Heraldry: In the area of King's Landing
- The Citadel. Heraldry: Houses in the Riverlands
- The World of Ice & Fire, Beyond the Free Cities: Sothoryos.
- The World of Ice & Fire, Ancient History: The Doom of Valyria.
- The Rogue Prince.
- A Clash of Kings, Chapter 12, Daenerys I.
- A Dance with Dragons, Map of Valyria
- A Clash of Kings, Chapter 47, Arya IX.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 27, Daenerys III.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 6, Arya I.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 34, Cat Of The Canals.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 8, Daenerys I.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 78, Samwell V.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 39, Cersei IX.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 36, Cersei VIII.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 72, Daenerys X.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 3, Daenerys I.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 19, The Drowned Man.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 1, Bran I.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 32, Tyrion IV.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 22, Arya II.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 39, Arya VII.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 65, Arya V.
- A Clash of Kings, Chapter 27, Daenerys II.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 23, Daenerys II.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 42, Daenerys IV.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 59, The Discarded Knight.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 60, The Spurned Suitor.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 6, The Merchant's Man.
- A Clash of Kings, Chapter 10, Davos I, p 146.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 47, Tyrion X.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 26, Samwell III.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 25, The Windblown.
- The material on this page is taken from the web page Other languages at Dothraki Wiki that is owned by dothraki.org and may be used for noncommercial purposes.
- Valyrian languages on Wikipedia.
- High Valyrian 101: Learn and Pronounce Common Phrases By Katie M. Lucas