Dragons are magical flying reptilian creatures, which existed on the continents of Westeros and Essos, but were considered to have been extinct for almost one hundred and fifty years. The only remaining traces of the dragons were skeletal remains and dragon eggs which are thought to have turned to stone. But during the events described in the main series of books, the species is brought back by magically hatching three old apparently-petrified dragon eggs.
Newborn dragons are known as hatchlings; dragons that are older but not full-grown are known as drakes.
- 1 Appearance
- 2 Characteristics
- 3 History
- 4 Recent Events
- 5 Known Dragons
- 6 Known dragon eggs
- 7 Books and scrolls about dragons
- 8 Quotes
- 9 Behind the Scenes
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Dragons are scaled, reptilian creatures. They have four limbs: two wings, which are used as forelegs like bats and pterosaurs, and two rear legs. George R. R. Martin's dragons thereby differ from the traditional depiction of dragons as six-limbed creatures. Martin came to his decision as he was bothered by the fact that no animal in nature has ever evolved in such a way (i.e. four legs and two wings). Nonetheless, some A Song of Ice and Fire artwork shows them with four legs and a detached pair of wings.
Dragons have strong jaws, sharp teeth and claws, leathery wings and long necks and tails, with horns on their heads. As young hatchlings, they are around the size of a cat. If it has enough food and freedom, a dragon never stops growing. A dragon given such freedom can reach a span width of twenty feet within a year and a half. Dragons which are locked up, e.g., the Targaryen dragons housed in the Dragonpit in King's Landing, do not grow as large as dragons left free to fly as they wish. Although increasing age means increasing size, a larger size does not always show a higher age (e.g., the younger Meraxes was larger than the older Vhagar).[N 1] Balerion, the largest Targaryen dragon, was large enough to swallow an aurochs or a mammoth from Ibben whole.
Dragons, demons, and other creatures are said to inhabit the cliff caves above the Ash. Sea dragons in the Sunset Sea and ice dragons in the Shivering Sea are recalled in legends and folklore, but scholars have no proof of their existence, or how closely related they are to dragons.
It is said that dragons are fire made flesh. Great heat emanates from dragons' bodies, to the point that they steam during cold nights. Dragons only eat cooked meat, and use the extremely hot dragonflame which they breathe to cook their meat before eating it.
A dragon's scales are largely, but not entirely, impervious to flame as well, and serve as protection for the more vulnerable flesh and musculature beneath. As a dragon ages, its scales thicken and grow harder, affording even more protection, leaving dragons nearly immune to fire, although they can still be wounded by dragonflame (e.g., Moondancer's eyes being blinded by Sunfyre's fire during the Dance of the Dragons). Similarly, as dragons age, the fires they breath become hotter and fiercer. Where a hatchling's flame can set straw aflame, the flames of older dragons, like Balerion and Vhagar in the fullness of their power, could melt steel and stone. The lifespan of dragons is many times that of a human, though their maximum natural lifespan is difficult to determine: as beasts of war, most of the known examples died in battle. Balerion, the largest and oldest Targaryen dragon, already alive when House Targaryen moved from Valyria to Dragonstone in 114 BC died of old age in 94 AC during the reign of King Jaehaerys I Targaryen. Balerion was near two hundred years old when he died, but as the only known example of a dragon who died of old age, it is unclear if this should be considered typical. Dragons are not invulnerable; a scorpion bolt through the eye killed Meraxes. When Balerion returned with Princess Aerea Targaryen before Aerea's death, the dragon had large new bloody wounds from an unknown cause.
Dragons are believed to be intrinsically tied to magic in the world. Since the death of the last dragon in 153 AC, summers grew shorter and the winters colder and crueler, while magical spells became less powerful.
Dragonbone is as strong as steel, but lighter and far more flexible, and impervious to fire. It has been used to make brooches, bows, hilts of Valyrian steel daggers, and whip handles.
Historians, like Septon Barth, Grand Maester Munkun, and Maester Thomax, disagree on the mating habits of dragons. Dragons lay large, scaled eggs to reproduce. According to Archmaester Gyldayn, and agreed upon by Maester Yandel, the ability of a dragon to lay eggs is proof that said dragon is female. When a dragon is never observed to have laid eggs, this is taking as proof that it must have been male. However, according to Barth and Maester Aemon, dragons have no fixed gender, but are “now one and now the other, as changeable as flame”. Barth believed that dragons can change sex at need, but Maester Anson believes this to be erroneous, and states in his Truth that Barth's statement is simply a misunderstood esoteric metaphor.
Traditionally, Targaryen princes received a dragon's egg in their cradle, allowing them to bond with the dragons as soon as the eggs hatched. This tradition supposedly started during the reign of King Aegon I Targaryen, when Princess Rhaena Targaryen placed a dragon egg in the cradles of her younger siblings, Jaehaerys and Alysanne shortly after their births. From these two eggs, the dragons Vermithor and Silverwing hatched.
During the reign of King Viserys I Targaryen, placing a dragon egg in the cradle of a newborn princeling became truly customary. Jacaerys Velaryon, Lucerys Velaryon, Joffrey Velaryon, Viserys Targaryen, Jaehaerys Targaryen, Jaehaera Targaryen, and Maelor Targaryen are all known to have received an egg in their cradle during Viserys I's reign. During the reign of King Aegon III Targaryen, eggs were placed in the cradles of Prince Aegon and Lady Laena Velaryon.
Dragons are intelligent creatures which can be trained to serve as battle mounts and understand vocal commands. They are said to be capricious in nature, and have to be trained to keep them from laying waste to everything around them. However, dragons will not allow everyone to mount them. In Valyria, the noble-born dragonriding families, the dragonlord families, frequently married brother to sister to keep the bloodline pure, and it is generally believed that Valyrian heritage plays a part; During the civil war known as the Dance of the Dragons, Prince Jacaerys Velaryon called upon Targaryen bastards and their descendants, the so-called dragonseeds, to try and mount a dragon. Regardless, men without Valyrian descent made their attempts as well. Having Valyrian blood (no matter how directly) is not a guarantee that bonding with a dragon will be successful.
Once a dragon has bonded with a rider, that dragon will not allow anyone else to mount it while its rider lives, no matter how familiar said person might be to the dragon, except when the person bonded to the dragon is on the dragon's back. When the rider of a dragon dies, that dragon can bond with a new rider. No rider has ever ridden a different dragon while their current dragon was alive. However, when Prince Viserys Targaryen's dragon Balerion died, according to Martin, "[Viserys] did not take a second dragon", leaving the possibility that a rider might bond with a new dragon after his/her first dragon has died. Indeed, Queen Rhaenyra Targaryen, following the death of her dragon Syrax, insisted on finding more dragon eggs, as she "must have another dragon". Dragons who have had a rider once before are easier to bond with than wild dragons.
A dragon might to be able to sense when its current rider is in distress or has died. This is implied in the case of the dragon Dreamfyre, who, despite being locked and chained in the Dragonpit, is said to have sensed when her rider Helaena Targaryen committed suicide in Maegor's Holdfast, at the other side of King's Landing. A dragonrider has also screamed out when his/her dragon was hit by a spear.
Dismounting from a dragon is often referred to as "sliding off".
In Barth's Unnatural History, the septon considered several legends regarding the origins of dragons. The Valyrians claimed that dragons sprang forth from the Fourteen Flames, a ring of volcanoes on the Valyrian peninsula. In Qarth, tales state dragons came from a second moon in the sky, which was scalded by the sun and cracked like an egg, and a million dragons poured forth. Dragons are also said to have originated from the Shadow Lands beyond Asshai and the islands of the Jade Sea. Ancient tales from Asshai claim that an unnamed people first tamed these dragons, brought them to Valyria, and taught the Valyrians their arts before departing from the annals of history. Barth put forth the theory that dragons were created by Valyrian bloodmages using wyvern stock. Dragons may also be related to firewyrms.
Dragons populated most of the known world in ages past, and ancient dragon bones have been found as far north as Ib and as south as the jungles of Sothoryos. The yellow emperor Chai Duq of Yi Ti is said to have kept a dragon at his court after marrying a noblewoman from Valyria.
In Westeros, Ser Galladon of Morne is said to have slain a dragon with the Just Maid, Crackbones allegedly twisted a dragon's neck into a knot, and Serwyn of the Mirror Shield slew the dragon Urrax. Davos the Dragonslayer is a hero beloved in the Reach, and dragons are also said to have once roosted on Battle Isle until the first Hightower put an end to them. Smallfolk claim that the hot springs below Winterfell are warmed by the breath of a subterranean dragon. Nagga is said to have been the first sea dragon.
The Valyrians mastered the art of raising dragons and used them as weapons of war to carve out a massive empire, the Valyrian Freehold. The Valyrians are said to have used dragon horns to tame dragons.
After the Doom of Valyria, however, the only dragons known to have survived were five dragons on Dragonstone. They belonged to House Targaryen, who had brought them from Valyria when they went into exile. Four of these dragons eventually died on Dragonstone, leaving only Balerion. However, the other dragons left eggs behind, and from these hatched Vhagar and Meraxes.
The Targaryen Dragons
House Targaryen used Balerion, Vhagar, and Meraxes in their Wars of Conquest against the Seven Kingdoms. They were instrumental in the burning of Harrenhal and the Field of Fire, and the threat of dragons led to the submissions of Torrhen Stark and Sharra Arryn. Dragons were also used in the First Dornish War, which caused the death of Meraxes at the Hellholt in 10 AC. A valuable golden coin of the Iron Throne became known as a golden dragon.
Many dragons were hatched after Aegon's Conquest. During Aegon I's reign, "half a dozen" hatchlings were born on Dragonstone. One of the first was Quicksilver, hatched in 7 AC, who bonded with Aegon I's elder son and heir, Aenys. Another two hatched during the first year of Aenys's reign in 38 AC. Dragon fought dragon for the first time since the Doom of Valyria in the Battle Beneath the Gods Eye, resulting in the death of Quicksilver in 43 AC.
Over the course of one hundred and fifty years the Targaryens rode their dragons as a symbol of their power and as a means of transport. King Jaehaerys I Targaryen took six dragons with him to the north to visit the Warden of the North. These included Jaehaerys on Vermithor, Queen Alysanne on Silverwing, and four other currently-unknown dragons.
Balerion died of old age in 94 AC, late in the reign of Jaehaerys I. Jaehaerys's grandson and eventual successor Viserys I was Balerion's rider at the time of its death. This left Vhagar as the largest living dragon, and by 129 AC she was approaching Balerion's size.
By 129 AC, on the eve of civil war between Rhaenyra and Aegon II, there were twenty living dragons. The largest and oldest dragons were Vhagar, Vermithor, Silverwing, Dreamfyre, Meleys, Caraxes, and Syrax. Younger dragons still large enough to be ridden to war were Seasmoke, Sunfyre, Tessarion, Vermax, Arrax, Tyraxes, and Moondancer. Stormcloud, Morghul, and Shrykos were hatchlings not yet big enough to ride.
There were also three wild dragons living on Dragonstone which had never been successfully claimed by any rider: Grey Ghost, Sheepstealer, and the Cannibal. Sheepstealer hatched when Jaehaerys I was still young, and the Cannibal was even older (none knew for certain when it had hatched), and thus they were also quite large by the time of the Dance of the Dragons, while Grey Ghost was a younger and smaller beast. Not every hatchling lived to maturity, however, as seen with Rhaena of Pentos, whose hatchling only lived a matter of hours.
Extinction and Revival
By the end of the reign of King Viserys I Targaryen, twenty dragons were alive. The majority of these died during the civil war called the Dance of the Dragons, which began in 129 AC and lasted until mid 131 AC. Archmaester Marwyn, however, holds that the order of maesters, with their secret goal to suppress magic, was responsible for the extinction of dragons.
By the end of the Dance in 131 AC, only four dragons remained alive: Sheepstealer, the Cannibal, and Silverwing, who had been born years before the war, and the dragon Morning, which had hatched during the war. In 132 AC, a messenger from Alys Rivers, witch queen of Harrenhal, claimed to have seen a dragon within the castle, though the truth of the matter is uncertain.
There were still many dragon eggs left after the war, and at least one of those hatched. The last dragon was a stunted, sick and misshapen thing, and she died young, in 153 AC, during the reign of King Aegon III Targaryen, the Dragonbane. She had been a green female, small with withered wings. She laid a clutch of five eggs, which never hatched.
The Targaryens also had a collection of nineteen dragons skulls of various sizes and ages that they displayed on the walls of the throne room in the Red Keep. Some of these were thousands of years old.
After their extinction, the only remnants of dragons were their skulls and the eggs, some of which were petrified. The eggs were highly valued for their beauty and exotic nature. According to Ser Arlan of Pennytree, the summers became shorter after the last dragon died, and the winters longer and crueler.
Many futile attempts were made to revive dragons. Aegon III Targaryen, known as the Dragonbane, had nine mages cross the narrow sea to use their magics in attempt to hatch remaining dragon eggs. The pious King Baelor I Targaryen attempted to hatch his egg by praying over it. Aegon IV Targaryen ordered pyromancers to build seven mechanical "dragons" that shot jets of wildfire. Hundreds of men died in a failed attempt to use them to invade Dorne. The tragedy of Summerhall resulted from the attempt of King Aegon V Targaryen to hatch dragon eggs.
A Game of Thrones
Daenerys Targaryen, probably aided by Mirri Mmaz Duur, manages to hatch three dragons—Drogon, Rhaegal, and Viserion—in her husband Drogo's funeral pyre when she steps into the fire while they lay inside it. With Daenerys's exchange of life for life, the first three dragons in over a hundred years are born there in the Dothraki sea.
A Clash of Kings
In King's Landing, Wisdom Hallyne, a pyromancer of the Alchemists' Guild, tells Tyrion Lannister that their spells are more effective than usual, and wonders if there are any dragons around, as Wisdom Pollitor had once told him that magic had begun to go out of the world the day the last dragon died.
A Storm of Swords
During a small council meeting Varys reports that sailors back from the Jade Sea report that a three-headed dragon has hatched in Qarth, and is the wonder of that city. Lord Tywin Lannister dismisses the report.
A Feast for Crows
A Dance with Dragons
Daenerys encloses Rhaegal and Viserion within the dragon pit of Meereen's Great Pyramid after the death of Hazzea, although Drogon remains free. Drogon later causes chaos at Daznak's Pit, and Daenerys flies on his back to the Dothraki sea.
|Arrax||Prince Lucerys Velaryon||Born during the reign of King Viserys I Targaryen, between 115 AC and 129 AC.||Killed with its rider in 129 AC above Shipbreaker Bay by Vhagar.|
|Balerion (The Black Dread)||King Aegon I Targaryen||Born before House Targaryen moved from Valyria to Dragonstone in 114 BC.||Died in 94 AC, of old age.|
|King Maegor I Targaryen|
|Princess Aerea Targaryen|
|Prince Viserys Targaryen|
|The Cannibal||None||A wild dragon, never ridden. Got his name from his habit of eating young dragons and hatchlings. |
|Caraxes (The Blood Wyrm)||Prince Aemon Targaryen|
|Prince Daemon Targaryen||Killed with its rider in battle by Vhagar above the Gods Eye in 130 AC.|
|Dreamfyre||Princess Rhaena Targaryen|
|Queen Helaena Targaryen||Died in 130 AC in the Storming of the Dragonpit.|
|Drogon||Queen Daenerys Targaryen||Hatched from an egg by Daenerys Targaryen, who placed Drogon's egg on the funeral pyre of her husband, Khal Drogo, whom Drogon is named after. Mounted by Daenerys for the first time in 300 AC.||[Alive at end of book story as published by start of May 2021]|
|Grey Ghost||None||A wild dragon, never ridden. Caught his own food (fish, etc) at sea.||Died in 130 AC when attacked by Sunfyre.|
|Meleys (The Red Queen)||Princess Alyssa Targaryen||Claimed by Alyssa from 75 AC until 84 AC|
|Princess Rhaenys Targaryen||Claimed by Rhaenys from 87 AC.||Dragon and rider died in 129 AC, during the battle at Rook's Rest.|
|Meraxes||Queen Rhaenys Targaryen||Born on Dragonstone between 114 BC and Aegon's Conquest.||Died at the Hellholt in Dorne in 10 AC during the First Dornish War.|
|Moondancer||Lady Baela Targaryen.||Died in 130 AC, during the Dance of the Dragons.|
|Morghul||Princess Jaehaera Targaryen||Born during the reign of King Viserys I Targaryen, after an egg was placed in the cradle of Princess Jaehaera.||Died during the Storming of the Dragonpit in 130 AC.|
|Morning||Lady Rhaena Targaryen.||Born during the Dance of the Dragons.|
|Quicksilver||King Aenys I Targaryen|
|Prince Aegon Targaryen||Dragon and rider were killed in 43 AC by Balerion in the Battle Beneath the Gods Eye.|
|Rhaegal||None||Hatched from an egg by Daenerys Targaryen, who placed Rhaegal's egg on the funeral pyre of her husband, Khal Drogo. Daenerys named Rhaegal after her oldest brother, Rhaegar Targaryen.||[Alive at end of book story as published by start of May 2021]|
|Seasmoke||Ser Laenor Velaryon|
|Addam Velaryon||Died during the Second Battle of Tumbleton in 130 AC.|
|Sheepstealer||Nettles||A wild dragon, claimed during the Dance of the Dragons.|
|Shrykos||Prince Jaehaerys Targaryen||Born from an egg placed in the cradle of Prince Jaehaerys Targaryen during the reign of King Viserys I Targaryen.||Died during the Storming of the Dragonpit in 130 AC.|
|Silverwing||Queen Alysanne Targaryen||Hatched from an egg placed in the cradle of Alysanne Targaryen. Resided on Dragonstone after Alysanne died. |
|Ulf the White||On Dragonstone she was eventually claimed by Ulf the White. Became wild after the death of her rider, and made her lair in an island on Red Lake.|
|Stormcloud||Prince Aegon "the Younger" Targaryen||Ridden only once, in 129 AC.||Died a few hours later after the Battle of the Gullet.|
|Sunfyre (The Golden)||King Aegon II Targaryen||Said to have been young between 120 AC and 129 AC.||Died during the Dance of the Dragons in late 130 AC at Dragonstone.|
|Syrax||Queen Rhaenyra Targaryen||Born during the reign of King Jaehaerys I Targaryen, and named by Rhaenyra after a Valyrian goddess.||Died during riots in King's Landing in 130 AC.|
|Terrax||Jaenara Belaerys||Lived in Valyria before the Doom of Valyria. Riding him, she spent three years exploring Sothoryos.|
|Tessarion (The Blue Queen)||Prince Daeron Targaryen||Died during the Dance of the Dragons, in 130 AC.|
|Tyraxes||Prince Joffrey Velaryon||Born from an egg placed in the cradle of Prince Joffrey Velaryon.||Died in 130 AC, during riots in King’s Landing.|
|Vermax||Prince Jacaerys Velaryon||Born from an egg placed in the cradle of Prince Jacaerys Velaryon.||Died in 130 AC.|
|Vermithor (The Bronze Fury)||King Jaehaerys I Targaryen||Hatched from an egg placed in the cradle of Jaehaerys I Targaryen. Unclaimed since Jaehaerys's death in 103 AC, until he bonded with Hugh Hammer in 129 AC.||Died in 130 AC, during the Dance of the Dragons, at Second Tumbleton.|
|Vhagar||Queen Visenya Targaryen||Born in 52 BC. Ridden by Visenya Targaryen until her death in 44 AC. Remained unridden for twenty-nine years.|
|Prince Baelon the Brave||In 73 AC Baelon Targaryen claimed and rode her until his death in 101 AC.|
|Lady Laena Velaryon||Vhagar was eventually claimed by Laena Velaryon, who rode the dragon until her own death in 120 AC.|
|Prince Aemond Targaryen||Shortly afterwards, Vhagar was claimed by Prince Aemond Targaryen, and ridden by him.||Rider and dragon died in 130 AC.|
|Viserion||None||Hatched from an egg by Daenerys Targaryen, who placed Viserion's egg on the funeral pyre of her husband, Khal Drogo. Daenerys named Viserion after her brother Viserys Targaryen.||[Alive at end of book story as published by start of May 2021]|
|The last dragon||None||Born and died during the reign of King Aegon III Targaryen. Was once seen by Ser Arlan of Pennytree when he was still a boy; it was not really combat-worthy.|
Of unknown or uncertain chronology
- Urrax, according to legend slain by Serwyn of the Mirror Shield, is a legendary figure from the Age of Heroes, although singers now claim he was a human, a knight of the Kingsguard. The Kingsguard was founded in 10 AC, thousands of years after the Age of Heroes and the arrival of the first knights in Westeros.
Known dragon eggs
- "wu" means "whereabouts unknown, not known if hatched"
|wu||[three eggs]||Were stolen from the Dragonstone hatcheries by Elissa Farman in 54 AC, and sold to the Sealord of Braavos.|
|Mysaria||wu||When Prince Daemon Targaryen learned his concubine was pregnant, he presented her with a dragon egg, but King Viserys I Targaryen commanded him to return the egg and send Mysaria away.|
|Jacaerys Velaryon||Vermax||placed in his cradle at his birth by royal decree|
|Lucerys Velaryon||Arrax||placed in his cradle at his birth by royal decree.|
|Joffrey Velaryon||Tyraxes||placed in his cradle at his birth by royal decree.|
|Viserys II Targaryen||he possessed an egg during the Dance of the Dragons, so far undescribed – whereabouts unknown.|
|(died soon afterwards)||A broken thing that died within hours. She possessed another egg at the start of the civil war.|
|Morning||Taken to the Vale with her during the war|
|wu||Taken to the Vale with her during the war, did not hatch|
|wu||Taken to the Vale with her during the war, did not hatch|
|Maelor Targaryen||wu||he was given an egg at birth, which had not yet hatched by the start of the civil war. It is unknown what happened to the egg after Maelor was killed at Bitterbridge.|
|Aegon II Targaryen||wu||purple and gold||seeking a replacement for the dead Sunfyre, Aegon choose a new egg in the hopes of hatching a new dragon for himself.|
|[5 eggs]||wu||from the last dragon's clutch, so far undescribed|
|Elaena Targaryen||wu||platinum white and bright golden|
|Daeron Targaryen||wu||known to exist, but so far undescribed|
|Aerion Targaryen||wu||gold and silver, with veins of fiery colors|
|Aemon Targaryen||wu||known to exist, but so far undescribed|
|Aegon V Targaryen||wu||white and green swirls|
|Ambrose Butterwell||wu||red, with golden flecks and black whorls|
|[7 eggs]||used by King Aegon V Targaryen in the ceremony that caused the tragedy at Summerhall. Some of these may have been the unhatched eggs mentioned above. Whereabouts unknown, but possibly destroyed by the fire.|
|Euron Greyjoy||Euron claims he had a dragon egg, but threw it into the sea.|
|(May be the 3 that were stolen from the Dragonstone hatcheries by Elissa Farman in 54 AC and sold in Essos)||Drogon||black as the midnight sea, alive with scarlet ripples and swirls.|
|Rhaegal||deep green, with burnished bronze flecks.|
|Viserion||colored pale cream, streaked with gold.|
Books and scrolls about dragons
- Blood and Fire by an anonymous author
- Dragons, Wyrms, and Wyverns: Their Unnatural History by Septon Barth
- The Death of Dragons by Maester Thomax
- Truth by Maester Anson
- Against the Unnatural by Maester Vanyon
- The Dance of the Dragons, A True Telling by Grand Maester Munkun
- Dragonkin by Maester Thomax
- unnamed dragonlore by Tyrion Lannister
We shall not pretend to any understanding of the bond between dragon and dragonrider; wiser heads have pondered that mystery for centuries. We do know however, that dragons are not horses, to be ridden by any man who throws a saddle on their back.—writings of Gyldayn
For the first time in hundreds of years, the night came alive with the music of dragons.—thoughts of Daenerys Targaryen
Dragons are fire made flesh, and fire is power.
—thoughts of Tyrion Lannister
All I know of dragons is what my brother told me when I was a girl, and some I read in books, but it is said that even Aegon the Conqueror never dared mount Vhagar or Meraxes, nor did his sisters mount Balerion the Black Dread. Dragons live longer than men, some for hundreds of years, so Balerion had other riders after Aegon died ... but no rider ever flew two dragons.
There are no more dragons known to exist... but this is a medieval period, and large parts of the world are still terra incognita, so there are always tales of dragon sightings in far off mysterious places. The maesters tend to discount those.
Behind the Scenes
- Although the year of birth of Meraxes is not known, she is known to have hatched after Lord Aenar Targaryen arrived with his household on Dragonstone in 114 BC (The World of Ice & Fire, The Reign of the Dragons: The Conquest). That means she might have been born as early as the year of House Targaryen's arrival. Meraxes's death in 10 AC, however, makes it impossible for her to have been older when she died than Vhagar, who died at the age of 181, had been when she died. Although Meraxes died younger, her skull was larger than Vhagar's (A Game of Thrones, Tyrion II).
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- The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aegon I.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 16, Eddard III.
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Maegor I.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 41, Jon V.
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Jaehaerys I.
- Not A Blog: The Rogues Are Coming... (Comment March 12, 2014)
- Fire & Blood, The Dying of the Dragons - Rhaenyra Triumphant.
- Fire & Blood, The Dying of the Dragons - The Blacks and the Greens.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 45, Samwell V.
- Fire & Blood, Under the Regents - The Hooded Hand.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 22, Arya II.
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aegon III.
- The Mystery Knight.
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Baelor I.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 46, Daenerys V.
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aegon IV.
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aegon V.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 17, Bran III.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 72, Daenerys X.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 19, Tyrion III.
- A Feast for Crows, Prologue.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 17, Cersei IV.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 11, Daenerys II.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 71, Daenerys X.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 70, The Queen's Hand.
- Fire & Blood, The Dying of the Dragons - A Son for a Son.
- Fire & Blood, Reign of the Dragon - The Wars of King Aegon I.
- Fire & Blood, The Dying of the Dragons - The Short, Sad Reign of Aegon II.
- Fire & Blood, The Long Reign - Jaehaerys and Alysanne: Policy, Progeny, & Pain.
- The World of Ice & Fire, Ancient History: The Age of Heroes.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 8, Bran II.
- So Spake Martin: Three Maidens in the Tower (June 27, 2006)
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 29, The Reaver.
- A Clash of Kings, Chapter 27, Daenerys II.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 26, Samwell III.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 66, Tyrion XII.
- Rolling Stone: George R.R. Martin: The Rolling Stone Interview, April 23, 2014
- Dragon - Wikipedia article on the real-world mythological creature.