Timeline of major events

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This timeline of major events attempts to lay out the most important points in the history of Westeros and Essos, based on dates and information given in the novels and supporting material. For further detail, see years before Aegon's Conquest and years after Aegon's Conquest.

According to tradition, the known history of Westeros extends back over twelve thousand years,[1] and its maesters speculate that the world itself may be forty thousand years old (or older, possibly five hundred thousand years or more).[2] However, the oldest historic recounts in Westeros were written after the Andals' arrival to the continent, as the First Men used runes for carving on stone. Everything written about the Age of Heroes, the Dawn Age, and the Long Night originates from stories written down by septons thousands of years later. The accuracy of the legends and myths that recount much of this history is openly questioned by the maesters of the Citadel, amongst others.[3] Additionally, George R. R. Martin is sometimes intentionally imprecise with dates or distances.[N 1]


All dates are in relation to the Conquest of Aegon I Targaryen, using negative numbers for events before Aegon's Conquest. Note, that 'ca' is an abbreviation for the Latin word 'circa', meaning around, or approximately.

Dawn Age

Prehistory Before the coming of men: The lands of Westeros are inhabited in the Dawn Age by a mysterious race of diminutive humanoid creatures known as the children of the forest, as well as giants and other magical creatures.[2]
ca. 12,000 BC The First Men invade Westeros: A human ethnic group from Essos, the First Men, invades Westeros by crossing the Arm of Dorne, bearing weapons of bronze. In a futile attempt to end the invasion, the children use the hammer of the waters to shatter the land bridge, creating the Broken Arm and the island chain known as the Stepstones.[4]

The First Men are more numerous, larger, stronger, and more technologically advanced than the children, who try to resist the invaders using their magic and obsidian weapons. It proves unsuccessful, however, and the First Men gradually push deeper and deeper into Westeros, establishing hundreds of petty kingdoms.[1][4]

ca. 10,000 BC Signing of the Pact: After years of warfare, the First Men and children of the forest come to a standstill and finally agree to a peaceful coexistence, signing the Pact on the Isle of Faces. This pact gives the First Men dominion over the open lands and lets the children keep control over the forested areas. In time, the First Men adopt the worship of the old gods of the forest.

Age of Heroes

ca. 10,000 BC Age of Heroes: An era during the history of Westeros, which would be named so later for the great men and women who live in the years of peace and prosperity following the forging of the Pact. The Pact endures for nearly four thousand years, and in that time, the children of the forest and the First Men grow closer. In time, the First Men set aside many of their cultural differences to embrace the ways and customs of the children of the forest. With the exception of the Drowned God of the Iron Islands and the Lady of the Waves and Lord of the Skies of the Three Sisters, the gods of the children become those of the First Men.

Many of the noble houses of Westeros today trace their lineage back to the Age of Heroes. This was the time when grand historical figures are said to have lived, such as Brandon the Builder, founder of House Stark in the north; Lann the Clever, founder of House Lannister, who winkles Casterly Rock from the Casterlys in the westerlands; or Garth the Gardener, founder of House Gardener in the Reach. Also during this the Storm Kings of House Durrandon arise in the stormlands—a line with figures such as the founding Durran Godsgrief, supposed builder of Storm's End—and the Grey King rules the ironborn of the Iron Islands.

ca. 8,000 BC or 6,000 BC The Long Night: In this time, night seems to last for a generation, and the longest, coldest and darkest winter descends on Westeros. The ice spreads down from the north, and under the cover of darkness, the Others invade Westeros from the uttermost north, marching, killing and raising up the dead to be their servants in unlife and nearly destroying all men in Westeros. The Long Night comes to an end with the Battle for the Dawn. The children and the First Men unite to defeat the Others with dragonglass weapons, with the Night's Watch pushing them back into the frozen reaches of the far north.[5] Legendary figures from this time include the last hero and Azor Ahai, who wields a great sword of fire, Lightbringer. These events are believed to have occurred between eight thousand and six thousand years ago.[6]
Building of the Wall: With the Others defeated, Bran the Builder, with the aid of giants, the First Men, and perhaps the children of the forest, raises the Wall, a monumental fortification of ice and ancient magic, to shelter the realms of men from the menaces of the north. The Sworn Brotherhood of the Night's Watch guards the Wall. It is said that Bran the Builder also builds Winterfell, becomes the first King of Winter, and founds House Stark.

Night's King: According to legend, the thirteenth Lord Commander of the Night's Watch took a mysterious pale woman as his lover. He declared her his queen, and himself a king. They controlled the Night's Watch with sorcery, and sacrificed to the Others. They ruled at the Nightfort for thirteen years, until King Brandon Stark and the wildling king Joramun cast down the Night's King, and the name of the Night's King was forbidden. Maesters largely dismiss this tale as myth.[7][3][8]

Coming of the Andals

ca. 6,000 BC, 4,000 BC, or 2,000 BC Foundation of the Faith: In the hills of Andalos on Essos, a new religion takes shape, the Faith of the Seven. Supposedly, seven deities appear to Hugor of the Hill, inspiring the Andals for their invasion of Westeros.

The coming of the Andals: The Andals cross the narrow sea and make landfall on its eastern shore at the Fingers in the Vale. They come under the banner of the Faith of the Seven, with seven-pointed stars carved into their chests, wielding weapons of steel. They fight both the First Men and the children of the forest, sweeping the land much like the First Men did thousands of years before. When the Andals crossed the narrow sea from Essos is disputed; some sources indicate six thousand years ago,[9][10] the True History states it was four thousand years ago,[11] and some maesters claim it was two thousand years ago.[11]

For centuries the Andals war with the First Men and the children in an attempt to drive them out. One by one, the six southron kingdoms fall and most of the weirwoods are destroyed. Only the north remains under the rule of the First Men, in large part due to the strategically-located fortress of Moat Cailin resisting multiple attempts to take it and thereafter serving as the door between north and south. Though the north remains secure, the children of the forest begin their slow withdrawal from the lands of men, retreating deeper into their forests and north of the Wall.

The Iron Islands fall to the Andals a thousand years after the beginning of their invasion of Westeros,[12] ending the line of Kings of the Iron Islands which originated from Urron Greyiron. Unlike in the other regions, however, Andals are assimilated to the native beliefs of the Old Way and the Drowned God.

Age of Valyria

ca. 8,0004,700 BC Rise of the Valyrian Freehold: While Westeros was recovering from the Long Night, in Essos, the peaceful sheep-herding folk of the Valyrian peninsula find dragons lairing in the Fourteen Flames, an immense chain of volcanoes extending across the neck of the peninsula. The Valyrians tame the dragons with magic, which gives them the means to gain influence over the area. The Valyrian Freehold is established. In its capital, Valyria, magic flourishes, topless towers rise toward the heavens where dragons soar, stone sphinxes gaze down through eyes of garnet, and smiths forge swords of legendary strength and sharpness.

Ghiscari wars: Five wars are fought between the Old Empire of Ghis, the greatest empire on the eastern continent, and the Freehold — wars which Valyria wins with the help of its dragons. The Valyrians practice slavery learned from the Ghiscari.[13][14]

ca. 4,700 BC Fifth Ghiscari War: The Ghiscari wars end with the fifth war in which Old Ghis is utterly destroyed by the Freehold, as to ensure there would not be a sixth war. The Valyrians destroy the city's walls and streets with dragonflame, and salt and sulfur the fields. With the Ghiscari empire shattered, the Valyrian Freehold expands its influence over the surviving Slaver Cities of Slaver's Bay.[13][15][16]

Following the defeat of the Old Empire of Ghis, the Freehold seeks to expand their territories. The Andals, who had been living in Andalos, travel west to flee the upcoming Valyrians and prevent slavery. They first land in the Fingers in the Vale of Arryn. From there, they spread all across Westeros.[12]

ca. 3,700 BC After a thousand years, the Andals who invaded Westeros look towards the Iron Islands. There, they extinguish House Greyiron, who had ruled the Iron Islands for "a thousand years".[17][12]
1,436 BC Lorath: A sect of religious dissidents leave the Freehold to establish a temple upon Lorath's main isle, becoming the first inhabitants of the city that becomes the Free City of Lorath.[18]
ca. 950700 BC The Rhoynish Wars: With the destruction of Old Ghis, the Valyrian Freehold's slow westward expansion brings it into conflict with the Rhoynish cities along the great Rhoyne, a vast waterway. This series of wars between the Freehold and the Rhoynar, starting around 950 BC with the First Turtle War, lasts for some two hundred and fifty years and ends with the Second Spice War.[19][20][21][22][23]
ca. 700 BC The Rhoynar migration: Prince Garin the Great raises an army a quarter-million strong to oppose the Valyrians, but fails utterly against their dragons. Following the defeat of the Rhoynar in the Second Spice War, Nymeria, a Rhoynish warrior-queen, evacuates the survivors of Garin's war, mostly women and children, on ten thousand ships, eventually seeking refuge in Dorne in southern Westeros. There, Nymeria forms a marriage alliance with Lord Mors Martell and together they finally organize the land into one realm, establishing House Martell as the ruling house of Dorne after Nymeria's War. Mors adopts many Rhoynish customs. The unification of Dorne under Nymeria and Mors leads to new conflicts with the Kings of the Reach and the Storm Kings, expressed through raids, skirmishes, and the occasional wars over the centuries.
ca. 314 BC The Valyrian Freehold annexes a small island at the mouth of Blackwater Bay, off the east coast of Westeros. Using arcane arts, they build a castle whose towers are shaped to look like dragons, giving it its name: Dragonstone.[24]
114 BC Migration of the Targaryens: Following a prophetic dream of his daughter Daenys, Lord Aenar Targaryen decides to leave Valyria with his family and all their belongings. The Targaryens settle on Dragonstone.
102 BC The Doom of Valyria: The nature of the Doom is unclear, save that heavy volcanic and seismic activity are involved, likely due to the Fourteen Flames, the mountains where the dragons were first discovered. The Valyrian peninsula is shattered and the city of Valyria is laid waste, although not completely destroyed. The dragons of Valyria are virtually wiped out and the Valyrian Freehold crumbles apart in the Century of Blood. Its various city-states break apart, asserting their independence and surviving to this day as the Free Cities and the cities of Slaver's Bay.

The Seven Kingdoms

ca. 3,000 BC Over the centuries following the Andal invasions, the southern kingdoms of the First Men fall, and eventually the Andals raise up six powerful kingdoms of their own.
ca. 3,000 BC Wildling invasion: The free folk (wildlings) unite under the brother Kings-beyond-the-Wall, Gendel and Gorne. They manage to evade the Night's Watch and bypass the Wall in great numbers using a network of tunnels that extend under the Wall. However, they are met by the King in the North from House Stark on the other side and are eventually thrown back.[25]
ca. 700 BC "A thousand years ago", House Stark subdues House Bolton, their primary antagonists for dominance in the north, and end the practice of flaying.[26] Also "a thousand years ago", Karlon Stark defeats a rebel lord, and his descendants become known as House Karstark.[27]

The Rhoynar, fleeing the Valyrians after the Second Spice War, migrate to Dorne "a thousand years ago".[20] This is the last major migration into Westeros.

ca. 400 BC Battle of Six Kings: Fall of House Teague and annexation of the riverlands by King Arlan III Durrandon of the Stormlands.[28]
ca. 100 BC Battle at Fairmarket: Harwyn Hoare conquers the riverlands from King Arrec Durrandon.[28]
ca. 42 BC Harrenhal: Harren Hoare, King of the Isles and the Rivers, begins the construction of the castle Harrenhal, which takes forty years to complete.[29]

Targaryen Dynasty

2 BC – 1 AC Aegon's Conquest: Aegon the Conqueror invades Westeros. In two years' time he subdues and unites six of the seven kingdoms of Westeros under his banner and constructs a new capital city at King's Landing. Dorne remains independent, however. With the destruction of the Storm King, Argilac the Arrogant, and the death of the last King of the Reach, control of the castle of Storm's End passes to Aegon's bastard half-brother Orys Baratheon, and of Highgarden to Harlan Tyrell. Edmyn Tully of Riverrun is named Lord Paramount of the Trident. The day of Aegon's coronation by the High Septon in Oldtown becomes the first day of Aegon's reign, beginning 1 AC.[30]
213 AC The Dragon's wars: Continuing the Wars of Conquest, Aegon I Targaryen invades the Iron Islands in 2 AC. Vickon Greyjoy of Pyke becomes Lord of the Iron Islands. In the meantime, Queen Visenya put an end to the uprising of the Three Sisters. The Targaryens launch an invasion of Dorne in 4 AC that escalates into the First Dornish War.[31]
413 AC First Dornish War: Aegon I Targaryen invades Dorne but the Dornishmen successfully resist. Aegon's sister Rhaenys is presumed dead after disappearing at the Hellholt.[32]
1337 AC The Dragon's Peace: After the Dragon's wars, the realm is at peace until Aegon's death.[31]
4148 AC The Faith Militant uprising: Upon Aegon I's death, his son Aenys I takes the throne. He angers the Faith when he marries his eldest daughter to his eldest son, leading to an uprising against the Targaryens. Aenys is incapable of dealing with the crisis, and eventually dies of a short illness on Dragonstone in 42 AC. Dowager Queen Visenya, leading the care for Aenys, brings her son Maegor, Aenys' brother, back from his exile, and Maegor is crowned king, despite Aenys having three sons all before Maegor in the line of succession. Maegor's response to the Faith's uprising is ruthless and brutal, resulting in the deaths of thousands in battle, through slaughter and by dragonfire. Besides the Faith's uprising, Maegor also has to deal with Prince Aegon, Aenys I's eldest son, battling him for the throne, and later Prince Jaehaerys, who makes his claim known towards the end of Maegor's reign. [33][34]
48 AC Jaehaerys the Conciliator: King Jaehaerys I succeeds King Maegor the Cruel. He declares a truce and agrees to end the slaughter in return for the Faith Militant disbanding and submitting to the Targaryens. The rule of Jaehaerys the Conciliator brings decades of peace and prosperity to the realm.[35]
49 AC The Year of the Three Brides: A year in the early reign of King Jaehaerys I Targaryen marked by three weddings: Princess Rhaena Targaryen wed Androw Farman; Lord Rogar Baratheon wed Queen Regent Alyssa Velaryon; King Jaehaerys I Targaryen wed his sister Alysanne Targaryen.[36]
54 AC The Year of the Stranger: A year marked by the deaths and tragedies that befell House Targaryen and the Seven Kingdoms.[37]
92 AC Choosing of 92 AC: With the death of King Jaehaerys I's eldest son and heir, Prince Aemon, Jaehaerys needs to name a new heir, choosing between Aemon’s only child, Princess Rhaenys, and Jaehaerys's own second son, Prince Baelon. Jaehaerys eventually names Baelon.[35]
96 AC Rise of the Triarchy: After defeating Volantis at the Battle of the Borderland by uniting their forces, the Free Cities of Myr, Lys, and Tyrosh ally together to form the Triarchy, also known in Westeros as the Kingdom of the Three Daughters. The Triarchy lasts for several decades, during which they find themselves in conflict with the Targaryens on occasion.[38][39][40]
101 AC The Great Council of 101 AC: After Prince Baelon's death, King Jaehaerys I needs to name a new heir once again. The king calls for the first Great Council, so the lords of Westeros can decide between Princess Rhaenys's only son, Laenor Velaryon, and Prince Baelon's eldest son, Prince Viserys. The latter is chosen with a majority of votes.[35]
106115 AC Conquest of the Stepstones: Prince Daemon Targaryen allies with Lord Corlys Velaryon to conquest the Stepstones, a conflict eventually involving the Triarchy and Dorne. Daemon names himself King of the Stepstones and the Narrow Sea in 109 AC. He abandons the Stepstones in 115 AC, when marrying Laena Velaryon. Five more Kings of the Narrow Sea follow him in a short period of time, before Daemon's kingdom falls.[41][40]
120 AC The Year of the Red Spring: A year in the reign of Viserys I marked by four great tragedies. The deaths of both Laena and Laenor Velaryon, the former in childbirth, the latter murdered in Spicetown, were the first two tragedies. Thirdly, Prince Aemond Targaryen lost his eye in a fight against his young cousin, Prince Lucerys Velaryon. Lastly, a great fire at Harrenhal claims the lives of Lord Lyonel Strong, Hand of the King, and his heir, Ser Harwin. Each of these events influences the events which lead to the Dance of the Dragons.[38][40]
129131 AC The Dance of the Dragons: The first major civil war in the history of the Seven Kingdoms, the Dance is a war of succession between Aegon II and his half-sister Rhaenyra Targaryen over their father's throne. It consumes them both, as well as most of the Targaryen family and their remaining dragons. The war ends with Aegon III, eldest surviving son of Rhaenyra, being crowned.[42][43] The Triarchy collapses with the outbreak of the Daughters' War.[44]
153 AC Death of the last dragon: King Aegon III Targaryen struggles to breed healthy dragons - those he had managed to produce are born weak and sickly. He is unable to prevent the death of the last one, earning himself the title Dragonbane. The last dragon dies in 153 AC, and all that is left behind are several eggs which the Targaryens fail to hatch.[45][46][47]
157161 AC Conquest of Dorne: Upon taking the throne at age fourteen, King Daeron I decides to finish Aegon the Conqueror's work and launches a successful invasion of Dorne. Following the Submission of Sunspear, the Young Dragon leaves Lord Lyonel Tyrell to govern Dorne. After Daeron returns to King's Landing, however, the Dornishmen kill Lyonel to an uprising against the Iron Throne. When Daeron I returns with a fresh army, he is killed while meeting under a peace banner and his cousin, Prince Aemon the Dragonknight, is captured.[48] Daeron is said to have lost ten thousand men conquering Dorne and fifty thousand while failing to hold it.[49] King Baelor I Targaryen travels to Dorne to negotiate.[50]
170 AC Prince Daeron, second cousin of Baelor I, and Princess Myriah Martell of Dorne have their first son, Prince Baelor. Later that year, Princess Daena Targaryen gives birth to Daemon Waters, her bastard son by Aegon IV Targaryen, who would later become known as Daemon I Blackfyre.[51][52]
187 AC Dorne formally joins the Seven Kingdoms through the marriage of King Daeron II's younger sister Daenerys to Maron Martell, Prince of Dorne. After his wedding, Maron swears his fealty to the Iron Throne.[53]
196 AC The First Blackfyre Rebellion: The second major civil war of Westeros erupts after Daemon I Blackfyre puts a claim on the Iron Throne based on Daeron II's illegitimacy. With many lords declaring for him, Daemon marches his forces on King's Landing but is defeated in the Battle of the Redgrass Field. He is killed by his half-brother, Brynden Rivers, yet several of his sons escape to the Free Cities with Aegor Rivers.[54][55]
209 AC The events of The Hedge Knight take place. Prince Baelor Targaryen, the heir to the throne, is killed in a mishap at the tourney at Ashford Meadow. A few months later, King Daeron II and Baelor's two sons die in the Great Spring Sickness. Daeron II's second son, Aerys I, becomes king. Baelor Breakspear's nephew, Prince Aegon, becomes squire to a hedge knight, Ser Duncan the Tall, in the hope of improving his mettle.[46]
211 AC As depicted in The Sworn Sword, Houses Osgrey and Webber of the Reach become allies. Brynden Rivers, called Lord Bloodraven, has become the King's Hand by this time, angering Prince Maekar, brother to Aerys and the late Baelor.[56][57]
The Second Blackfyre Rebellion: Blackfyre loyalists attempt to launch a second rebellion during the wedding tourney at Whitewalls, but Bloodraven exposes the plan and the Pretender Daemon II Blackfyre. Many of the conspirators are executed before a battle needs to be fought. These events are depicted in The Mystery Knight.[57]
219 AC The Third Blackfyre Rebellion: Haegon I Blackfyre, Aegor Rivers, and the Golden Company invade Westeros. In the end, Haegon is killed after his surrender. Aegor is arrested, but allowed to go to the Wall by King Aerys I Targaryen. On his way there, Bittersteel's ship is intercepted, and he is freed by his own men. Before the year ends, Aegor crowns Haegon's son, Daemon, the new Blackfyre king.[58]
226 AC Beyond the Wall: The free folk unite under Raymun Redbeard, King-Beyond-the-Wall. Taking the Night's Watch unawares, they scale the Wall and invade the north. They are eventually stopped at the Battle of Long Lake by a Stark host led by Lord Willam Stark.[59][60]
233 AC Great Council of 233 AC: During King Maekar I Targaryen's reign, his eldest son Daeron dies of the pox and his second son Aerion dies after drinking wildfire. His third son, Aemon, has already taken his maesters vows. Maekar dies battling an outlaw lord in the Peake Uprising. Without a clear heir, Brynden Rivers, the Hand of the King, calls for a Great Council, where the claims of Maekar's children and grandchildren are discussed. Aemon refuses the crown and removes himself to the Wall. Aenys Blackfyre, son of Daemon I Blackfyre, wishes to put forward his claim, and is invited by Bloodraven to come to King's Landing. Upon Aenys's arrival, however, he is arrested and executed by order of Brynden to remove the threat of another Blackfyre Pretender. Prince Aegon becomes Aegon V, the Unlikely, as he is the fourth son of a fourth son.[61][62][63] Bloodraven is exiled to the Wall by King Aegon, and he becomes Lord Commander of the Night's Watch in 239 AC.[64]
236 AC The Fourth Blackfyre Rebellion: Daemon III Blackfyre and the Golden Company invade Westeros. The rebellion is a short one, with Daemon III slain by Ser Duncan the Tall, of the Kingsguard.[62] This year is also remembered as the Red Spring.[40]
259 AC The tragedy of Summerhall: King Aegon V and his heir, Prince Duncan the Small, are killed in a great fire at the Targaryen's summer palace, Summerhall. The fire is triggered by an unsuccessful attempt to hatch the last three dragon eggs left in the west, and it heralds or directly contributes to Prince Rhaegar Targaryen's birth.[62][65]
260 AC The War of the Ninepenny Kings: War erupts when the Band of Nine, including Maelys Blackfyre, after having conquered the Free City of Tyrosh and the Stepstones, begin to move towards the Seven Kingdoms. King Jaehaerys II Targaryen calls his banners to bring the attack to the Stepstones. Ser Barristan Selmy kills Maelys. Ser Brynden Tully also distinguishes himself in the war. Prince Aerys Targaryen is knighted by Ser Tywin Lannister. Lord Ormund Baratheon, the Hand of the King, dies in the hands of his son, Ser Steffon.[66]
261 AC Reyne-Tarbeck rebellion: After years of friction, Houses Reyne and Tarbeck rise in rebellion against their overlords of House Lannister. In the resulting conflict, Ser Tywin Lannister, heir to Lord Tytos Lannister, obliterates both rebel houses.[67] King Aerys II Targaryen names Tywin his Hand of the King after succeeding to the Iron Throne the following year.[68]
276 AC Birth of Prince Viserys Targaryen: After many years, Queen Rhaella Targaryen finally gives birth to a healthy son who will survive infancy.[69]
277 AC The Defiance of Duskendale: Lord Denys Darklyn refuses to pay taxes to the Iron Throne. King Aerys II Targaryen, eager to sort out the situation himself, goes to Duskendale and is taken prisoner. Duskendale is besieged for six months before Ser Barristan Selmy manages to free the king. Houses House Darklyn and Hollard are destroyed and House Rykker takes over the town. It is said that it was the Defiance which begins Aerys's descent into madness. Aerys does not leave the Red Keep until 281 AC because of this event.[70]
280 AC Marriage of Prince Rhaegar Targaryen: After having been betrothed in early 279 AC, Prince Rhaegar Targaryen marries Princess Elia Martell of Dorne in the Great Sept of Baelor early in the year. Towards year's end, their first child, Princess Rhaenys, is born.[70]

The Fall of the Dragons

281 AC Resolution of the Kingswood Brotherhood: The band of outlaws called the Kingswood Brotherhood is defeated by a royal force commanded by Ser Arthur Dayne. A young squire, Jaime Lannister, distinguishes himself and is knighted by Arthur, the Sword of the Morning. Jaime discards his claim as Lord Tywin Lannister's heir by being named by King Aerys II Targaryen to the Kingsguard. Tywin resigns as Hand of the King in angry protest and returns to Casterly Rock.[71][72][73]

The Year of the False Spring: Lord Walter Whent holds a great tourney at Harrenhal. Prince Rhaegar distinguishes himself in the lists, but he names Lyanna Stark of Winterfell, who is betrothed to Lord Robert Baratheon, as the queen of love and beauty rather than his own wife, Elia. Eddard Stark meets and befriends Howland Reed of Greywater Watch.[74]

282283 AC Robert's Rebellion: Rhaegar Targaryen abducts Lyanna Stark. Lyanna's brother, Brandon, and father, Lord Rickard Stark, demand that Aerys discipline his son, but instead the Mad King kills them both. Aerys demands the heads of Lords Robert Baratheon and Eddard Stark from their guardian, Jon Arryn. Instead, Houses Arryn, Stark, and Baratheon raise their banners in open rebellion, signifying the start of the war, which is also known as the War of the Usurper, which will last close to a year. Lord Hoster Tully agrees to join the rebellion as well. The Tyrells remain loyal to the king and besiege Robert's castle of Storm's End, held by his brother Stannis. The new Hand of the King, Lord Jon Connington, is defeated in the Battle of the Bells and is sent into exile in the Free Cities. The rebel army defeats the royalists at the Battle of the Trident, where Prince Rhaegar is killed. The Lannisters apparently march to the aid of King Aerys, but instead turn against him with the Sack of King's Landing. Aerys is killed by Ser Jaime Lannister, one of his Kingsguard, to prevent the wildfire plot. Princess Elia Martell and her children, Princess Rhaenys and Prince Aegon, are murdered by Lannister bannermen, Ser Gregor Clegane and Ser Amory Lorch. Robert's approval of their deaths leads to a rift with Eddard. Following combat at the tower of joy with three Kingsguard, Lord Stark find Lyanna dying. Robert, who can trace his descent back to King Aegon V Targaryen, is crowned Lord of the Seven Kingdoms, and he weds Tywin's daughter, Cersei Lannister. With the war at an end, Eddard returns home to Winterfell with his bastard son, Jon Snow.[74][75]

King Robert's Reign

284 AC Assault on Dragonstone: Stannis Baratheon, at the command of Robert I Baratheon, his brother and the new king, builds a new royal fleet to take Dragonstone, the last Targaryen holdfast left after the rebellion. Dowager Queen Rhaella Targaryen dies in childbirth, giving birth to Princess Daenerys Targaryen during a summer storm. With the garrison of Dragonstone prepared to surrender, Ser Willem Darry spirits away Rhaella and Aerys's two youngest children, Prince Viserys and Princess Daenerys, to safety in the Free City of Braavos.[76]
289 AC Greyjoy's Rebellion: Balon Greyjoy names himself King of the Iron Islands. He is defeated and two of his sons are killed in the war, however. King Robert accepts his surrender, and Balon's remaining son, Theon Greyjoy, becomes a ward and hostage of Lord Eddard Stark.
297 AC Magister Illyrio Mopatis invites Viserys and Daenerys Targaryen to stay in his manse in Pentos and offers to help them reclaim the Iron Throne.[76]

A Song of Ice and Fire

298 AC The events of A Song of Ice and Fire begin. (The Prologue of A Game of Thrones takes place in 297 AC, and quite possibly the first few Daenerys chapters as well.)

In the north, after thousands of years without encounter, the Others reappear in an attack on rangers from the Night's Watch and a group of free folk.

The Hand of the King, Jon Arryn, is poisoned after learning that Robert I Baratheon's heirs to the Iron Throne are bastards.

Following the death of Robert, the Seven Kingdoms are engulfed in the War of the Five Kings, a central conflict that spans through all five published books.

299 AC Beyond the Wall: With the disturbing news of a conflict beyond the Wall, the Night's Watch leaves in force on a great ranging into the far north.

In Essos: After having hatched three dragon eggs, bringing dragons back to the world once again, Daenerys Targaryen conquers the great cities of Slaver's Bay, setting their slaves free and throwing the region into chaos.

300 AC In Westeros: After a decade-long summer and brief autumn, winter finally engulfs Westeros. The long-believed-dead Prince Aegon Targaryen starts his invasion of Westeros, landing in the stormlands with the Golden Company.

In Essos: Daenerys Targaryen rules Meereen as its queen.


I prefer my history dead. Dead history is writ in ink, the living sort in blood.[17]

Past a certain point, all the dates grow hazy and confused, and the clarity of history becomes the fog of legend.[11]


  1. So Spake Martin: Date of The Hedge Knight and Tyrion's Age, May 09, 1999. 'When we talk, we tend to be imprecise about such things, saying something happened "in the sixties" or "at the turn of the century," or that World War II was "fifty years ago." It's no different in the Seven Kingdoms. And that goes for distances as well as dates. A phrase like "a thousand leagues" is not meant to be a precise measure of distance, only the equivalent of "a million miles away," ie, "a very long way."'


  1. 1.0 1.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 66, Bran VII.
  2. 2.0 2.1 The World of Ice & Fire, Ancient History: The Dawn Age.
  3. 3.0 3.1 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 5, Samwell I.
  4. 4.0 4.1 The World of Ice & Fire, Ancient History: The Coming of the First Men.
  5. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 21, Bran III.
  6. The World of Ice & Fire, Ancient History: The Long Night.
  7. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 56, Bran IV.
  8. The World of Ice & Fire, The Night's Watch.
  9. A Game of Thrones RPG and Resource Book, Guardians of Order
  10. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 40, Catelyn VII.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 48, Jaime I.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 The World of Ice & Fire, Ancient History: The Arrival of the Andals.
  13. 13.0 13.1 The World of Ice & Fire, Ancient History: The Rise of Valyria.
  14. The World of Ice & Fire, Ancient History: Valyria's Children.
  15. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 23, Daenerys II.
  16. Some five thousand years ago in 299 AC, placing its occurrence roughly around 4700 BC
  17. 17.0 17.1 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 11, The Kraken's Daughter.
  18. The World of Ice & Fire, The Free Cities: Lorath.
  19. The series of conflicts known as the Rhoynish Wars ended a thousand years before the main series in ~300 AC, and had lasted roughly two and a half centuries
  20. 20.0 20.1 The World of Ice & Fire, Ancient History: Ten Thousand Ships.
  21. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 8, Tyrion III.
  22. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 14, Tyrion IV.
  23. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 18, Tyrion V.
  24. The World of Ice & Fire, Ancient History: The Doom of Valyria.
  25. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 26, Jon III.
  26. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 50, Theon IV.
  27. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 20, Catelyn III.
  28. 28.0 28.1 The World of Ice & Fire, The Riverlands.
  29. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 7, Catelyn I.
  30. The World of Ice & Fire, The Reign of the Dragons: The Conquest.
  31. 31.0 31.1 Fire & Blood, Reign of the Dragon - The Wars of King Aegon I.
  32. The World of Ice & Fire, Dorne: Dorne Against the Dragons.
  33. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aenys I.
  34. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Maegor I.
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Jaehaerys I.
  36. Fire & Blood, The Year of the Three Brides - 49 AC.
  37. Fire & Blood, Birth, Death, and Betrayal Under King Jaehaerys I.
  38. 38.0 38.1 The Rogue Prince.
  39. The World of Ice & Fire, The Free Cities: The Quarrelsome Daughters: Myr, Lys, and Tyrosh.
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Viserys I.
  41. Fire & Blood, Heirs of the Dragon - A Question of Succession.
  42. Fire & Blood, Aftermath: The Hour of the Wolf.
  43. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aegon II.
  44. Fire & Blood, The Dying of the Dragons - The Red Dragon and the Gold.
  45. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aegon III.
  46. 46.0 46.1 The Hedge Knight.
  47. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 13, Tyrion II.
  48. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Daeron I.
  49. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 5, Jon I.
  50. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Baelor I.
  51. See the Baelor Targaryen calculation.
  52. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aegon IV.
  53. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Daeron II.
  54. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Daeron II.
  55. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Maekar I Targaryen.
  56. The Sworn Sword.
  57. 57.0 57.1 The Mystery Knight.
  58. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aerys I.
  59. The World of Ice & Fire, The North: The Lords of Winterfell.
  60. The World of Ice & Fire, The Wall and Beyond: The Wildlings.
  61. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Maekar I.
  62. 62.0 62.1 62.2 The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aegon V.
  63. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 6, Jon I.
  64. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aegon V.
  65. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Rhaegar Targaryen.
  66. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Jaehaerys II.
  67. The World of Ice & Fire, The Westerlands: House Lannister Under the Dragons.
  68. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: AerysOO.
  69. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aerys II.
  70. 70.0 70.1 The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aerys II.
  71. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 11, Jaime II.
  72. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 31, Jaime IV.
  73. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 67, Jaime VIII.
  74. 74.0 74.1 The World of Ice & Fire, The Fall of the Dragons: The Year of the False Spring.
  75. The World of Ice & Fire, The Fall of the Dragons: Robert's Rebellion.
  76. 76.0 76.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 3, Daenerys I.

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