Military strength

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Military strength is the aggregate power of fighting forces under the command of a leader, which includes armies and navies.

During times of war, a liege can "call his banners", thereby raising his army. His bannermen, then, respond by raising their own respective forces, which differ in size, depending on the amount of lands and subjects a lord of knight possesses. In addition to this land force, there are some lords or powers who have their own fleet (e.g. House Redwyne, the Iron Throne, Braavos). Others might include creatures to their forces, like dragons, as used by the dragonlords of Valyria of old and by House Targaryen as recent as the Dance of the Dragons, and elephants, as used by the Golden Company.

Armies can be made up out of several social classes. Both nobly born lords, knights, but also smallfolk can be called to arms. Additionally, sellswords and sellsword companies are also, at times, hired.

Multiple factors influence the size of an army. George R.R. Martin has listed the size of the region (influencing the time it takes an army to gather), the harshness of life, the population, wealth and fertility of the region, the amount of leadership, and the terrain as factors.[1]

While for most regions in the world of A Song of Ice and Fire no exact total numbers have been given, nor can be given, this page reflects the known numbers that are described to have been used in battles.

Knights from Starfall in battle

Westeros

Beyond the Wall

Mance Rayder's army of free folk in 299 AC is estimated by Jon Snow to be thirty to forty thousand strong,[2] including elderly, women and children. The free folk are defeated by Stannis Baratheon and the Night's Watch in the Battle of Castle Black.[2] Later, Tormund Giantsbane leads three thousand one hundred and nineteen free folk through the gates of the Wall at Castle Black.[3]

The Night's Watch

The numbers of the Night's Watch have long been dwindling.[4] During Aegon's Conquest, the Night's Watch numbered ten thousand strong.[5] However, by 298 AC, their strength has dwindled to less than a thousand.[6] Of these thousand, six hundred are stationed at Castle Black, two hundred at the Shadow Tower, and fewer at Eastwatch-by-the-Sea.[6] In 299 AC, Lord Commander Jeor Mormont organizes the Great Ranging, leading two hundred men from Castle Black, to be joined by a hundred men from the Shadow Tower.[7][8] Of these three hundred men, only fourteen survive and return to the Wall.[9] When the new Lord Commander is being chosen, five hundred eighty-eight token are cast, with only one brother not voting,[10] indicating that the strength of the Night's Watch, as a result from the Attack on the Fist of the First Men, and the attacks made by the free folk on numerous locations along the Wall, numbers less than six hundred men.

In late 233 AC, when Ser Brynden Rivers was sent to the Wall, two hundred men went with him. Many of them were archers from Rivers's personal guard, the Raven's Teeth.[11]

The North

During Aegon's Conquest in 2 BC-1 BC, the North marched to war with an army of thirty thousand.[12] Roughly a century later, during the Dance of the Dragons, Lord Roderick Dustin led a group of northmen called the Winter Wolves, number two thousand strong, south to take part in the war.[13] Lord Cregan Stark followed much later, but brought a much larger army.[14]

More recently, during the War of the Five Kings, Robb Stark gathered an army of twelve thousand at Winterfell. These twelve thousand include two thousand three hundred men from Karhold under the command of House Karstark (two thousand foot, three hundred horse).[15] In total, the host of twelve thousand counts three to four hundred knights, and three thousand northern calvery.[15] When the Stark host marches, others join them along the kingsroad,[15] and by the time the host reaches Moat Cailin, it is about eighteen thousand large.[16] House Manderly adds another fifteen hundred men,[16] bringing the total to nineteen thousand five hundred men.

An unknown number of men have been left at Moat Cailin, and an additional four hundred have been left at the Twins. Joined by four thousand men from House Frey from the riverlands, Robb Stark splits the northern host and takes nine/tenth of his calvery[17] to Riverrun.[18] He is joined on the road there, by forces from House Mallister and others, which swells the host to some six thousand thousand men.[19] With these men, Robb Stark fights in the Battle of the Whispering Wood and later the Battle of the Camps.

Meanwhile, the other tenth of the northern calvery marches with the northern foot south under the leadership of Lord Roose Bolton,[20] where he fights the Battle of the Green Fork against House Lannister.[18][21] Bolton retreats, and later during the war is known to have ten thousand soldiers under his command.[22]

In the meantime, after Winterfell has fallen to Theon Greyjoy, Ser Rodrik Cassel raises an army of near two thousand northmen to retake the castle. However, he is betrayed by six hundred Boltons in the battle at Winterfell.[23] A large number of these ten thousand, equaling one-third of Robb's infantry, are lost after the Battle at Duskendale.[24]

Robb Stark leads thirty-five hundred veterans from the Whispering Wood[25] north from Riverrun to the Twins,[26] where Roose Bolton joins them with another three thousand foot and five hundred horse. The forces Bolton brings with him are mostly men sworn to House Bolton, and some to House Karstark. Roose left six hundred men under Ser Kyle Condon and Ronnel Stout to defend the Trident.[27] According to Robb, when he joins his thirty-five hundred with the men Roose Bolton brings (another thirty-five hundred) and the men of House Frey, their numbers should equal more than twelve thousand,[26] a count that presumably includes the crannogmen. When House Bolton and House Frey betray House Stark during the Red Wedding, however, a large number of men are killed.

From the roughly twenty thousand northmen who marched south with Robb Stark at the start of the War of the Five Kings, only one in five returns north, most of them men from House Bolton.[28] According to Theon Greyjoy, Roose later has six thousand men or more at Winterfell.[29]

In 300 AC, the northern mountain clans march to battle, and Night's Watch Lord Commander Jon Snow believes two or three thousand men might take the field.[30] In total, three and a half thousand men from the mountain clans join Stannis.[31] Following the fight by Deepwood Motte, Stannis's army numbers five thousand.[32] The Northmen have an easier time during the march than the fifteen hundred southroners. However, the army dwindles as it becomes snowbound at a crofter's village in the wolfswood during their march on Winterfell.[33][34]

The Iron Islands

Ships of the Iron Fleet

The Iron Fleet alone consists of one hundred ships which are three times larger than the standard longship.[35] Victarion Greyjoy takes ninety-three of these ships with him to Slaver's Bay,[35] the other seven having been lost in the months before (one sank during a storm,[36] the other six were lost in battle[37]). Victarion splits the fleet of ninety-three ships in three squadrons, to reunite at the Isle of Cedars. The fleet, however, suffers three big storms, and only forty-three ships from the Iron Fleet make it to the rendezvous point.[35] The fleet is strengthened with nine ships captured along the way, bringing the total to fifty-four. Of these, fifty-three continue the journey to Slaver's Bay.[35] More ships are captured along the way, bringing the Iron Fleet's total to sixty-one.[38]

George R. R. Martin has indicated that the major lords of the ironborn can each float around one hundred ships.[39] A longship such as Sea Bitch has fifty oars, while Great Kraken and Iron Victory are larger.[40] The only fleets comparable to those of the Iron Islands are the royal fleet in the crownlands and the Redwyne fleet from the Reach.[41] Victarion Greyjoy takes

In 300 AC, King Tommen I Baratheon's small council hears reports that the ironborn have attacked the Shield Islands with a thousand ships, though several council members believe the number of five hundred ships to be closer to the truth.[42]

The Riverlands

During Aegon's Conquest, Aegon I Targaryen besieged Harrenhal with a host of eight thousand. This host included riverlanders. After Harrenhal's fall, he marched against the Reach with a host of eleven thousand, most riverlanders.[12] During the Dance of the Dragons, the Lords of the Trident raised six thousand six hundred men to battle Ser Criston Cole on route from Harrenhal to the Blackwater.[13] Ser Addam Velaryon later gathered near four thousand men from the riverlands.[13]

In the riverlands, House Frey raised four thousand soldiers at the start of the War of the Five Kings,[18] with one thousand of them knights and near three thousand foot.[43] They later supply the northern host commanded by Roose Bolton at Harrenhal with an additional fifteen hundred soldiers, commanded by Ser Aenys Frey.[44] Th eother riverlords combined can raise at least an additional eleven thousand, including eight thousand foot and three thousand horse.[22] After the Red Wedding, Ryman Frey leads two thousand soldiers of House Frey against Riverrun.[45] When the Bolton host marches back north after the Red Wedding, fifteen hundred Frey's accompany them.[28]

Renly Baratheon believes that a host of twenty thousand riverlanders has joined Robb Stark and his nearly twenty thousand northeners. According to Catelyn Tully, however, the actual number is much less.[46]

While the riverlands are rich, fertile and populous, the Kingdom lacks natural borders, and suffers from divided leadership, affecting the number of soldiers House Tully of Riverrun can call to battle.[1]

Vale of Arryn

Not much is known about the numbers of the Vale. George R. R. Martin has previously stated that the Vale is roughly equal in military strength to the North and Dorne.[1] The Vale has not yet participated in the War of the Five Kings, and thus, has not yet suffered any losses due to the war. In the present story, the six Lords Declarant are able to raise a host of twenty thousand.[47] Of these twenty thousand, they bring six thousand to the Gates of the Moon, which is being held by Lord Nestor Royce's garrison of less than three hundred.[48] The exact numbers the remainder of the lords of the Vale can field, are currently unknown.

The Vale has a fleet.[12]

The Vale mountain clans did participate in the War of the Five Kings. Three hundred clansmen join Tyrion Lannister at the start of the war on the side of House Lannister, fighting with him in the battle on the Green Fork, in which half of them die.[49]

The Westerlands

During Aegon's Conquest, the king of the Westerlands, King Loren I Lannister, marched with a host of twenty-two thousand, which he joined with the host of the Reach.[12]

The Lannister fleet at Lannisport consists of twenty or thirty cogs, carracks, galleys, and dromonds, while lesser lords have two or three ships for patrolling. In total, the westerman float fifty or sixty larger ships, while longships are used for coastal defense.[41]

In 260 AC, a thousand knights and ten thousand men-at-arms from the Westerlands marched to battle in the Stepstones, during the War of the Ninepenny Kings.[50] Upon return after the war, five hundred knights formed a company commanded by Ser Kevan Lannister. In late 261 AC, Ser Tywin Lannister rode forth to face the Reyne-Tarbeck Rebellion with five hundred knights and three thousand men-at-arms, as well as three thousand crossbowmen.[51] With this force, Tarbeck Hall was destroyed.[50] According to semi-canon sources, Houses Westerling, Banefort, Plumm, and Stackspear together were able to gather roughly sixty-five hundred more men, doubling the Lannister host in size.[52] Lord Roger Reyne, who had hastily gathered his forces to give aid to House Tarbeck, was only able to gather two thousand men in such a short time.[53] According to semi-canon sources, this was only a quarter of his available strength.[52] A surprise attack from the Reyne's left half of Lord Roger's forces dead.[50]

In 283 AC, Lord Tywin Lannister commanded twelve thousand Lannister men during the Sack of King's Landing.[54] More recently, at the start of the War of the Five Kings, the Westerlands gathered two armies: one of twenty thousand strong under the command of Lord Tywin Lannister,[49] and another of fourteen or fifteen thousand strong, commanded by Ser Jaime Lannister.[19] Meanwhile, Stafford Lannister is raising a third Lannister army, with an unknown amount of men.[55][56] The army is later attacked, and thousands are slain.[57] It is currently unknown how many men of this army still remain. Meanwhile, Lord Tywin has retreated with his twenty thousand men to Harrenhal,[58] fights with them in the Battle of the Fords in the riverlands,[22] and next marches them to King's Landing.[59] All but some three thousand later return to the westerlands.[60] Of the soldiers remaining, two thousand sail to Dragonstone for the siege, while less than a thousand accompany Jaime Lannister into the riverlands to aid with the siege of Riverrun.[61]

The Crownlands

During Aegon's Conquest, Houses Darklyn and Mooton combined raised an army of three thousand men.[12] During the Dance of the Dragons (129 AC-131 AC), Prince Aemond Targaryen gathered an army from King's Landing of four thousand men, withtin a fortnight.[13]

In 298 AC, the gold cloaks of King's Landing number two thousand.[62] Ser Jacelyn Bywater augments the City Watch of King's Landing to six thousand in early 299 AC.[63] Following the Battle of the Blackwater, due to deaths and desertions, only some forty-four hundred men remain.[64] Later that year, numbers have increased to nearly five thousand.[59]

Mace Tyrell later adds a hundred men from Highgarden to the gold cloaks.[65]

In the Crownlands, the Faith Militant played a larger role during the reign of King Maegor I Targaryen, until they were disbanded by his successor, King Jaehaerys I Targaryen. Of old, the Faith's military orders consisted out of the Poor Fellows and the Warrior's Sons. The Poor Fellows were far more numerous.[66] During the battle at the Great Fork of the Blackwater, thirteen thousand Poor Fellows and hundreds of knights from the Warrior's Sons from the chapter at the Stoney Sept were joined by hundred from the riverlands and westerlands in battle against King Maegor I, who was victorious.[67] More recently, in 300 AC, more than two thousand Sparrows have gathered in King's Landing.[68]

Fury, a triple-decked war galley of three hundred oars, belonging to Stannis Baratheon

Dragonstone

Dragonstone can field the least amount of soldiers.[1] Its garrison is made up out of thirty knights, a hundred crossbowmen, and three hundred men-at-arms.[13] When Aegon I Targaryen in 2 BC first prepared to sail to Westeros to begin his conquest, he summoned his friends, bannermen, and allies. His bannermen included House Velaryon of Driftmark, House Celtigar of Claw Isle, House Bar Emmon or Sharp Point and House Massey of Stonedance (the latter two actually being sworn to Storm's End). Their numbers were small, and it is unknown how many men set sail from Dragonstone with Aegon, as accounts differ, suggesting both a force of three thousand, as well as a force of several hundreds.[12]

In 299 AC, Stannis Baratheon's host includes three thousand men along the shore of Dragonstone.[69] During the Siege of Storm's End, Stannis's forces number five thousand, with less than four hundred horse.[70] Forces from the Stormlands join Stannis after Renly Baratheon's death. Ser Guyard Morrigen leads Stannis's vanguard of near five thousand prior to the Battle of the Blackwater.[71] Stannis's host numbers near twenty thousand knights, light horse, and freeriders,[72] though this includes men from the stormlands.

After Stannis has arrived at the [[Wall[[, Samwell Tarly observes more than a thousand southron soldiers at Castle Black.[10]


The Stormlands

In 206 AC, House Dondarrion was able to gather nearly four thousand infantry and eight hundred calvery.[73]

In 299 AC, supported by Highgarden and Storm's End, the host of Renly Baratheon is said to number a hundred thousand.[74] Renly himself claims to have eighty thousand with him at Bitterbridge, while another ten thousand are with Lord Mace Tyrell at Highgarden.[46] During the siege of Storm's End, Renly brings his cavalry of ten thousand, and claims they will soon be reinforced with a hundred thousand swords and spears.[70] After Renly's assassination, Catelyn thinks that Renly's ten thousand calvery will go over to Stannis.[75] Stannis later tells Ser Cortnay Penrose that he now has twenty thousand men. Renly's foot, near sixty thousand, remains at Bitterbridge, however, and some—especially those of House Florent—are put to death by Lord Randyll Tarly.[76][77] Exactly how many men from Renly's host were from the Reach, and how many from the stormlands, is unknown.

During the Battle of the Blackwater, Stannis's host numbers near twenty thousand knights, light horse, and freeriders.[72] As he previously had five thousand soldiers,[70] presumably some fifteen thousand men from Stannis's host originate from the stormlands.

The Reach

Calvery from Brightwater Keep - by artist Tomasz Jedruszek. © Fantasy Flight Games.

During Aegon's Conquest, thirty thousand men from the Reach marched against Aegon I Targaryen, joining their forces with the westerlands.[12]

The Redwyne fleet of the Arbor has two hundred warships.[42]

House Hightower is known to be able to field much more than nine thousand men.[13]

Supported by Highgarden and Storm's End, the host of Renly Baratheon is said to number a hundred thousand.[74] Renly himself claims to have eighty thousand with him at Bitterbridge, while another ten thousand are with Lord Mace Tyrell at Highgarden.[46] During the siege of Storm's End, Renly brings his cavalry of ten thousand, and claims they will soon be reinforced with a hundred thousand swords and spears.[70] After Renly's assassination, Catelyn thinks that Renly's ten thousand horse will go over to Stannis.[75] Stannis later tells Ser Cortnay Penrose that he now has twenty thousand men. Renly's foot, near sixty thousand, remains at Bitterbridge, however, and some —especially those of House Florent— are put to death by Lord Randyll Tarly.[76][77] Exactly how many men from Renly's host were from the Reach, and how many from the stormlands, is unknown.

Petyr Baelish tells Joffrey Baratheon's small council that a marriage with Renly's widow, Margaery Tyrell, would bring her father Mace's fifty thousand swords.[78] According to Tyrion Lannister, some seventy thousand Tyrell soldiers are in the city's vicinity once House Tyrell and House Lannister form an alliance.[59] Half of the Reach's strength returns home later on, whereas the other half goes to besiege Storm's End.[79][60] When the Reach is under attack, Ser Loras Tyrell claims that Highgarden can raise ten thousand men in a fortnight, and twenty thousand in a month.[42]

Dorne

An army of House Qorgyle on the march - by Tomasz Jedruszek. © Fantasy Flight Games

In the time before the Andals, King Ferris Fowler led ten thousand men against King Garth VII Gardener, during the Golden Reign.[80] At the time, House Fowler ruled one of the three most powerful kingdoms in Dorne (the other two being House Dayne of Starfall and House Yronwood of Yronwood.[81]

During Aegon's Conquest, the Dornish did not give battle. However, in 37 AC, at the start of the reign of King Aenys I Targaryen, a rebel known as the Vulture King rose. He was said to have a following of thirty thousand, to resist House Targaryen with.[82]

More recently, House Martell sent ten thousand soldiers to fight under the Targaryen banner at the Battle of the Trident, in 283 AC, led by Prince Lewyn Martell.[83][84]

Currently, the Martells are believed to be able to raise fifty thousand soldiers.[74][85] However, when, following his conquest of Dorne, King Daeron I Targaryen wrote his book called The Conquest of Dorne, he exaggerated the quantity of his opponents to enhance his victory. House Martell has never corrected this claim, in order to make Dorne appear stronger.[86] Dorne's true military numbers have not yet been revealed, though George R. R. Martin has previously stated that Dorne is roughly equal in military strength to the North and Vale.[1]

Miscellaneous

During Robert's Rebellion, Prince Rhaegar led an army to the Trident of forty thousand soldiers. About a tenth of these forty thousand were knights.[87] Of these forty thousand, ten thousand were Dornishmen.[83][84] The rebels, consisting of the North, Vale, riverlands, and stormlands, had fewer men.[88]

Essos

The Free Cities

  • Braavos: Braavos is, together with Volantis, the most powerful of the Free Cities. Their main power is at sea,[89] as the Braavosi fleet of warships is second to none, in addition to a merchantile fleet.[90] Braavos also has a city watch.[91] In 300 AC, Stannis Baratheon sends Ser Justin Massey to recruit twenty thousand sellswords in Braavos.[92]
The Unsullied in battle
  • Lorath: The least populous of the Free Cities, Lorath has little military power. They build only few warships. Not many Lorathi leave the islands.[93]
  • Lys: The Lyseni prefer to hire sellswords to do their fighting, seldom risking the lives of their own citizens.[94]
  • Myr: The Myrish prefer to hire sellswords to do their fighting, seldom risking the lives of their own citizens.[94]
  • Norvos: The bearded priests of Norvos keep a guard of slave soldiers.[95]
  • Pentos: Due to the agreements with Braavos, Pentos is allowed only twenty warships. They are not allowed to keep an army, nor are they allowed to hire sellswords or free companies. Pentos only has a small city watch.[96]
  • Qohor: During the Battle of Qohor, the city was successfully defended by three thousand Unsullied.[97][98] Ever since, Qohor has relied on the Unsullied slave soldiers for the defense of the city, further keeping only a small city watch.[98] Occasionally, Qohor also hires sellsword companies. Overall, the city is not considered to be martial.[98]
  • Tyrosh: The Tyroshi prefer to hire sellswords to do their fighting, seldom risking the lives of their own citizens.[94]
  • Volantis: Volantis is, together with Braavos, the most powerful of the Free Cities. Their main power is on land.[89] In 300 AC, Triarch Malaquo cuts off the Golden Company from the delta road near Volantis with five thousand foot and one thousand horse.[99]

Ghiscari cities

Targaryen host

Through the fall of Astapor, battle of Yunkai, and siege of Meereen, Queen Daenerys Targaryen acquires eight thousand six hundred Unsullied, five thousand uncut boys in training, one thousand sellswords (the Second Sons and Stormcrows), and a vast horde of freedmen.[100][108][101] The Second Sons later abandon Daenerys.[105]

Ser Aegor Rivers and his Golden Company - by Marc Simonetti

The Free Companies

The Free Cities of Essos hire numerous sellsword companies, such as the Company of the Cat, the Second Sons, the Stormcrows, and the Windblown.

Dothraki

Khalasars in the Dothraki sea have been known to reach fifty thousand[97] or even one hundred thousand[108] in size, although not all are warriors. The Field of Crows is said to have had a hundred thousand casualties after the great battle between the Dothraki and the Sarnori.[113]

In more recent times, Khal Drogo's khalasar, which is said to be one hundred thousand strong,[114] includes forty thousand mounted warriors.[115] It splinters into smaller groups after his death, however.[116] Khal Pono claims ten thousand of Drogo's khalassar,[54] while Khal Jhaquo claims twenty thousand riders[117] About a year later, the khalasar of Khal Pono is reported to be thirty thousand strong, located near Selhorys.[118]

Further east

Bayasabhad, Samyriana, and Kayakayanaya are guarded by tens of thousands of female defenders.[113]

The Five Forts can hold fifty thousand men in total, although it is unknown if they are at capacity.[119]

Emperor Lo Bu of Yi Ti allegedly led three hundred thousand against the Jogos Nhai.[120]

Miscellaneous

During the Second Spice War, the Rhoynar are said to have had an army of a quarter million, while the Valyrians had a hundred thousand men, one hundred war elephants, and three hundred dragons.[121] Following the Doom of Valyria, the thirty thousand of Aurion disappeared when they marched to the Valyrian peninsula.[122]

References and Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 So Spake Martin: Strength of the Regions (February 18, 2002)
  2. 2.0 2.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 73, Jon X.
  3. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 58, Jon XII.
  4. The World of Ice and Fire, The Wall and Beyond: The Night's Watch.
  5. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 60, Jon VIII.
  6. 6.0 6.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 21, Tyrion III.
  7. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 6, Jon I.
  8. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 15, Jon II.
  9. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 48, Jon VI.
  10. 10.0 10.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 75, Samwell IV.
  11. The World of Ice and Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aegon V.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 The World of Ice and Fire, The Reign of the Dragons: The Conquest.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 The Princess and the Queen.
  14. The World of Ice and Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aegon III.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 53, Bran VI.
  16. 16.0 16.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 55, Catelyn VIII.
  17. Nearly four thousand men, based on the estimated three thousand three hundred fifty (three thousand armored lances and three to four hundred knights; A Game of Thrones, Bran VI, and the thousand calvery from House Frey (A Storm of Swords, Catelyn II), which brings the total to four thousand three hundred fifty, making 9/10th three thousand nine hundred and fifteen men
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 59, Catelyn IX.
  19. 19.0 19.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 63, Catelyn X.
  20. Based on Robb's complete number of forces (19500 men from the North and 4000 men from House Frey), and the number of men he takes with him to Riverrun (~3915), Roose Bolton should have around ~19600 men with him
  21. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 62, Tyrion VIII.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 39, Catelyn V.
  23. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 66, Theon VI.
  24. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 35, Catelyn IV.
  25. Roughly aligning with nine/tenth of the northern calvery, which was three thousand three to four hundred strong, upon leaving Winterfell (A Game of Thrones, Bran VI.
  26. 26.0 26.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 45, Catelyn V.
  27. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 49, Catelyn VI.
  28. 28.0 28.1 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 20, Reek II.
  29. The Winds of Winter, Theon I
  30. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 17, Jon IV.
  31. Stannis had come North with no more than fifteen hundred men (A Dance with Dragons, Davos III), and has five thousand men after the mountain clans join him (A Dance with Dragons, Jon VII).
  32. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 35, Jon VII.
  33. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 42, The King's Prize.
  34. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 62, The Sacrifice.
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 56, The Iron Suitor.
  36. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 14, Brienne III.
  37. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 29, The Reaver.
  38. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 63, Victarion I.
  39. So Spake Martin: Re: Greyjoy Fleet (February 9, 1999)
  40. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 24, Theon II.
  41. 41.0 41.1 So Spake Martin: The Lannister Fleet (September 26, 1999)
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 32, Cersei VII.
  43. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 14, Catelyn II.
  44. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 64, Arya X.
  45. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 60, Tyrion VIII.
  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 22, Catelyn II.
  47. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 10, Sansa I.
  48. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 23, Alayne I.
  49. 49.0 49.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 56, Tyrion VII.
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 The World of Ice and Fire, The Westerlands: House Lannister Under the Dragons.
  51. Tywin Lannister "rode forth himself with five hundred knights and three thousand men-at-arms and crossbowmen behind him", and compared to the two thousand men of Roger Reyne, was said to have "three times his strength", according to most accounts (The World of Ice and Fire, The Westerlands: House Lannister Under the Dragons), thereby demonstrating that Tywin had three thousand men-at-arms and three thousand crossbowmen, bringing his total to sixty-five hundred men, roughly three times as many as Lord Roger's two thousand.
  52. 52.0 52.1 "The World of Ice and Fire", The Westerlands, unabbridged version
  53. The World of Ice and Fire, The Westerlands: House Lannister Under the Dragon.
  54. 54.0 54.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 12, Daenerys I.
  55. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 7, Catelyn I.
  56. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 20, Tyrion V.
  57. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 32, Sansa III.
  58. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 69, Bran VII.
  59. 59.0 59.1 59.2 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 38, Tyrion V.
  60. 60.0 60.1 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 16, Jaime II.
  61. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 27, Jaime III.
  62. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 47, Eddard XIII.
  63. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 8, Tyrion II.
  64. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 4, Tyrion I.
  65. A Dance with Dragons, Epilogue.
  66. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 28, Cersei VI.
  67. The World of Ice and Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Maegor I.
  68. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 17, Cersei IV.
  69. A Clash of Kings, Prologue.
  70. 70.0 70.1 70.2 70.3 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 31, Catelyn III.
  71. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 52, Sansa IV.
  72. 72.0 72.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 58, Davos III.
  73. The Hedge Knight.
  74. 74.0 74.1 74.2 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 17, Tyrion IV.
  75. 75.0 75.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 33, Catelyn IV.
  76. 76.0 76.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 42, Davos II.
  77. 77.0 77.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 44, Tyrion X.
  78. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 36, Tyrion VIII.
  79. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 12, Cersei III.
  80. The World of Ice and Fire, The Reach: The Gardener Kings.
  81. The World of Ice and Fire, Dorne: Kingsdoms of the First Men.
  82. The World of Ice and Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aenys I.
  83. 83.0 83.1 The World of Ice and Fire, The Fall of the Dragons: Robert's Rebellion.
  84. 84.0 84.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 37, Jaime V.
  85. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 43, Daenerys VII.
  86. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 40, Princess In The Tower.
  87. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 30, Eddard VII.
  88. So Spake Martin: The Siege of Storm's End (July 18, 1999)
  89. 89.0 89.1 The World of Ice and Fire, The Free Cities: Volantis.
  90. The World of Ice and Fire, The Free Cities: Braavos.
  91. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 64, The Ugly Little Girl.
  92. The Winds of Winter, Theon I
  93. The World of Ice and Fire, The Free Cities: Lorath.
  94. 94.0 94.1 94.2 The World of Ice and Fire, The Free Cities: The Quarrelsome Daughters: Myr, Lys, and Tyrosh.
  95. The World of Ice and Fire, The Free Cities: Norvos.
  96. The World of Ice and Fire, The Free Cities: Pentos.
  97. 97.0 97.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 8, Daenerys I.
  98. 98.0 98.1 98.2 The World of Ice and Fire, The Free Cities: Qohor.
  99. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 24, The Lost Lord.
  100. 100.0 100.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 23, Daenerys II.
  101. 101.0 101.1 101.2 101.3 101.4 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 16, Daenerys III.
  102. 102.0 102.1 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 11, Daenerys II.
  103. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 57, Tyrion XI.
  104. asoiaf.westeros.org: Boskone 2013, reading of Barristan I and Barristan II
  105. 105.0 105.1 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 36, Daenerys VI.
  106. 106.0 106.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 42, Daenerys IV.
  107. 107.0 107.1 107.2 107.3 107.4 107.5 107.6 A Dance with Dragons, Appendix.
  108. 108.0 108.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 27, Daenerys III.
  109. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 5, Tyrion II.
  110. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 61, The Griffin Reborn.
  111. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 66, Tyrion XII.
  112. 112.0 112.1 The Winds of Winter, Tyrion II
  113. 113.0 113.1 The World of Ice and Fire, The Grasslands.
  114. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 3, Daenerys I.
  115. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 36, Daenerys IV.
  116. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 72, Daenerys X.
  117. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 68, Daenerys IX.
  118. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 8, Tyrion III.
  119. The World of Ice and Fire, Yi Ti.
  120. The World of Ice and Fire, The Plains of the Jogos Nhai.
  121. The World of Ice and Fire, Ancient History: Ten Thousand Ships.
  122. The World of Ice and Fire, Ancient History: The Doom of Valyria.

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