Errata of main series

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This page contains the errata for A Game of Thrones, A Clash of Kings, A Storm of Swords, A Feast for Crows, and A Dance with Dragons.

A Song of Ice and Fire Errata
Main series
A Game of Thrones (Appendix)
A Clash of Kings (Appendix)
A Storm of Swords (Appendix)
A Feast for Crows (Appendix)
A Dance with Dragons (Appendix)
Dunk & Egg tales
The Hedge Knight
The Sworn Sword
The Mystery Knight
History novellas
The Princess and the Queen
The Rogue Prince
The Sons of the Dragon
Fire & Blood
Reign of the Dragon
Three Heads Had the Dragon
The Sons of the Dragon
The Year of The Three Brides
A Time of Testing
The Long Reign
Heirs of the Dragon
The Dying of the Dragons
Under the Regents
The Lysene Spring and the End of Regency
Lineages and Family Tree
The World of Ice & Fire
The Reign of the Dragons: The Conquest
The Targaryen Kings
The Fall of the Dragons
The Seven Kingdoms
The Free Cities
Beyond the Free Cities
The Bones and Beyond
Appendix
The Lands of Ice and Fire


Background

In his A Song of Ice and Fire series, George R. R. Martin uses the "unreliable narrator". As such, not all inconsistencies in the books that are mistakes. However, Martin has expressed that accidental mistakes can distract from the planned inconsistencies, making them less effective.[1] As such, the pages indexed here represent a collection of gathered possible and confirmed mistakes and, if possible, their confirmed corrections within Martin's series.

What you will not find on this page are discussions of information from So Spake Martin which contradicts with more recently released printed material, contradictions found in sample chapters from unreleased books (e.g., The Winds of Winter), or speculations about possible solutions.

Examples of what will not be found on the errata pages include:

  • According to Osha, "the blue star in the rider's eye" of the constellation the Ice Dragon points north.[2] However, when Bran Stark later recalls Osha's statement, he does so incorrectly: "The blue star in the dragon's eye pointed the way north, as Osha told him once."[3]
  • Differences in views on certain events. While the "commonly told story about the Battle of the Bells" apparently states that Robert I Baratheon and Jon Connington did not come face to face during the battle (as stated by Maester Yandel ["Rightly famed is Robert's grand victory at Stoney Sept, also called the Battle of the Bells, where he slew the famous Ser Myles Mooton—once Prince Rhaegar's squire—and five men besides, and might well have killed the new Hand, Lord Connington, had the battle brought them together."][4] and Harwin of Winterfell ["Robert came out of hiding to join the fight when the bells began to ring. He slew six men that day, they say. One was Myles Mooton, a famous knight who'd been Prince Rhaegar's squire. He would have slain the Hand too, but the battle never brought them together."]),[5] Connington himself recalls it rather differently ("Bells and battle followed, and Robert emerged from his brothel with a blade in hand, and almost slew Jon on the steps of the old sept that gave the town its name.").[6]

A Game of Thrones

  • In the Prologue, Gared, who has been in the Night's Watch for forty years as both man and boy, states "I saw men freeze last winter, and the one before, when I was half a boy", indicating that he was "half a boy" two winters ago.[7] However, Tyrion Lannister later states that he has seen eight or nine winters during his lifetime.[8] As Tyrion was born in 273 AC,[9][10] Gared's count does not add up to Tyrion's count, as more than two winters have passed within the last twenty-five years. Tyrion's count also makes little sense, since with the nine years of summer and the fact that he was born in the midst of a three-year winter,[8] that would leave only fourteen years to have eight or nine winters, contradicting the concept of the long seasons.
  • In Chapter 3, Daenerys I, Daenerys Targaryen states that her brother Viserys was eight years old when he fled King's Landing in 283 AC.[11] However, Viserys's birth has been confirmed to have occurred in 276 AC,[9] making him, at most, seven at the time.
  • In Chapter 5, Jon I, King Daeron I Targaryen is referred to as "Daeren Targaryen".[12]
  • In Chapter 12, Eddard II, Eddard Stark states that Ser Jaime Lannister will succeed to the title of Warden of the West after his father Lord Tywin Lannister. However, as a Kingsguard knight, Jaime cannot inherit.[13]
  • According to Jeor Mormont, he has been in the Night's Watch longer than Ser Alliser Thorne.[8] Alliser joined the Night's Watch following the conclusion of Robert's Rebellion,[8] which suggests that Jeor had joined the order prior to the war. While Jeor states that he had been Lord Commander at the time Alliser joined,[8] more recent sources, both canon and semi-canon, contradict this statement: In A Storm of Swords, it is stated that Lord Qorgyle, who had been the Lord Commander before Jeor,[14] was the Lord Commander at some point after the war,[15] and that the last election for Lord Commander took place roughly ten years before the series takes place,[16] which corresponds with George R.R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, which specifically states that Jeor Mormont was only elected in 288 AC.[17] As such, the claim that he was Lord Commander in 283 AC is incorrect. It is still possible, however, that Jeor had already been a member of the Night's Watch at the time.
  • Renly Baratheon's eye color has been described as green in A Game of Thrones,[18] but in A Clash of Kings he is said to have blue eyes like his older brother, Robert.[19]
  • In Chapter 20, Eddard IV, Eddard Stark recalls that Renly Baratheon was eight years old when King Robert I Baratheon won the Iron Throne in 283 AC.[20] However, he has been described as twenty-one years old in 299 AC on numerous occasions in A Clash of Kings,[21][19][22] making it impossible for him to have been eight years old in 283 AC. Possibly a planned inconsistency.
  • Shortly before Catelyn Stark arrives at the inn at the crossroads, she passes Jason Mallister, the Lord of Seagard, on the road, who is on his way to King's Landing for the Hand's tourney.[23] Catelyn arrests Tyrion Lannister at the inn that same evening,[23] which is witnessed by Yoren. Yoren subsequently rides as quickly as he can to King's Landing ("Rode hard, I did, near killed my horse the way I drove her, but I left the others well behind.").[24] However, by the time he arrives at King's Landing, the Hand's tourney, in which Lord Jason Mallister has participated, is already over. So Mallister managed to arrive in King's Landing days before Yoren did, despite the fact that Yoren should have arrived earlier.
  • When informing Eddard Stark about the abduction of Tyrion Lannister by Eddard's wife Catelyn, Yoren states that he left the other witnesses from the inn far behind him. However, he also states that "Not all o' them made for King's Landing, either. Some went galloping for Casterly Rock, and the Rock lies closer. Lord Tywin will have gotten the word by now, you can count on it.".[24] However, according to the maps of Westeros, King's Landing lies closer by than Casterly Rock,[25] which means that Yoren should have been able to reach the capital before anyone from the inn could have reached Casterly Rock.
  • Vayon Poole arranges for Sansa and Arya Stark to sail on the Wind Witch "out of Braavos" from King's Landing.[26] However, later on, when Arya Stark asks a Lannister guard at the docks about the ship, the man claims the ship is from Myr.[27]
  • In Chapter 59, Catelyn IX, it is said that Catelyn is welcomed by Lord Walder Frey in his hall while he is surrounded by "twenty living sons (minus Ser Perwyn, who would have made twenty-one), thirty-six grandsons, nineteen great-grandsons, and numerous daughters, granddaughters, bastards, and grandbastards".[28] While Walder Frey indeed has twenty-one sons,[N 1] he has thirty-one trueborn grandsons[N 2] and seventeen trueborn great-grandsons[N 3] at the time.[N 4] Furthermore, the listing from the Appendix from A Clash of Kings makes it likely that not all of them are present at the Twins. Although the locations of each of these characters at the time of Catelyn IX are not confirmed, by the start of A Clash of Kings they are the following: listed as serving as a page are Willem Frey (at Ashemark), Emmon's son Walder (at Casterly Rock), Robert Brax (at Casterly Rock), and Wendel Frey (at Seagard); Further listed as being away from the Twins are Zachery Frey, being trained at the Sept of Oldtown, Luceon, in service as a septon at the Great Sept of Baelor in King's Landing, Robert Frey, in training at the Citadel in Oldtown, Willamen, in service as a maester at Longbow Hall, Bradamar Frey, being fostered in Braavos, and Malwyn Frey, being apprenticed to an alchemist in Lys. Additionally, Walder's son Geremy is said to have drowned, while Aenys's son Aegon is identified as an outlaw.[29]
  • When Arya Stark is living on the streets of King's Landing after her father's arrest, she is unable to leave the city because the city's gates are either closed or guarded by the Lannisters. Yet, although she is unable to pass the River Gate, she is able to visit the wharfs, which are located outside of the River Gate.[27]

A Game of Thrones Appendix

A Clash of Kings

A Clash of Kings Appendix

In the appendix of A Feast for Crows, Eldon is still identified as Stannis's uncle, but is now called Lord Estermont instead of Ser.[44] If it is assumed that the Lord Estermont (never identified by his first name) from A Clash of Kings and A Storm of Swords has died after his last mention, and that Eldon has inherited Estermont since then, this information is consistent with the previous statements. No deaths in House Estermont have been described in the family, however.
However, in A Dance with Dragons, the appendix states that Ser Lomas is Eldon's second son, instead of his brother. At the same time, Eldon is identified as Stannis's great-uncle instead of his grandfather, making him a brother of Stannis's grandfather.[55] According to this scenario, Cassana's brothers are unknown, while it is suggested that the unnamed Lord Estermont — the one whom Stannis calls "grandfather" and complains has bent the knee to Joffrey — was the father of Cassana, and thus grandfather to the Baratheons. Additionally, it suggests that he has recently died, and that the current Lord Eldon was his brother. However, the application A World of Ice and Fire identifies Eldon as Stannis' great-uncle as well, but states he is the same person as the Lord Estermont who had bend the knee to Joffrey.[56][57]
The consistent information in all of these sources is that Ser Aemon is Eldon's son and heir, and Ser Alyn is Aemon's son, and that Ser Lomas's son is Ser Andrew. Whether Eldon is Cassana's father, brother, or uncle (and thus whether he is Lomas's brother, father, or uncle), is currently unconfirmed.

A Storm of Swords

  • On Richard Geiger's map of Slaver's Bay as printed in the UK edition of A Storm of Swords, Meereen is incorrectly placed upon the northern bank of the Skahazadhan.[58]
  • On Richard Geiger's map of Slaver's Bay as printed in the UK edition of A Storm of Swords, "Last Hearth", the castle of House Umber, is mislabeled as "Lost Heath" and given as the name of the area in which the castle is located, instead of the name of the castle itself. This mistake was corrected in later editions. In the US edition of A Storm of Swords, Last Hearth was correctly labeled and named.[58]
  • Vaes Tolorro is misspelled as Vaes Tolorru once.[59]
  • Tyrion's scar is first described as from a hair under his left eye to the right side of his jaw,[60] but in Chapter 4, Tyrion I, it's from above one eye to his jaw.[61]
  • In Chapter 14, Catelyn II, Catelyn Stark notes that Jeyne Westerling is "slender, but with good hips", indicating that "she should have no trouble bearing children, at least".[62] However, upon meeting Jeyne in A Feast for Crows, Jaime Lannister notes that she has narrow hips.[63] George R. R. Martin has called this mismatch in description a mistake.[64]
  • Eleyna Westerling is named "Elenya" in Chapter 14, Catelyn II,[62] while Chapter 45, Catelyn V and the appendix of A Storm of Swords,[53] the appendix of A Feast for Crows,[44] and the application George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire[65] correctly refer to her as "Eleyna".
  • Ser Ryman Frey refers to his grandfather, Lord Walder Frey, as his father when Robb Stark arrives at the Twins for Edmure Tully's wedding.[66] However, this might not necessarily be a mistake, as Robb refers to Walder as Ryman's father as well,[66] while Ser Walder Rivers, Walder's bastard son, refers to him as his "father" (correctly) and "grandfather" (incorrectly) in the same conversation.[67]
  • In Arya VII, Harwin leaves the inn to check on the sentries after Sandor Clegane has left following a failed attempt to reclaim his gold. However, Harwin is stated to say "Pissed it all away, did you?" to Anguy, despite already having left the building and only returning after the conversation has gone on for a while.[68]
  • In Arya VIII, Arya Stark thinks that she killed a boy when she was eight years old.[69] However, Arya has been specified to have been nine years old at the start of A Game of Thrones in the appendix[30] and later in the text,[70] and therefore incorrectly remembers her own age at the event.
  • Lothar Frey says that "Raymund and I shared a mother",[66] but Lothar's mother was Alyssa Blackwood, while Raymund's mother was Amarei Crakehall.
  • Qyburn is described as having brown eyes in A Storm of Swords[71] but as having blue eyes in A Feast for Crows.[72]
  • When Jaime Lannister returns to Harrenhal to rescue Brienne of Tarth, he "cupped his hands to shout", despite having only one hand.[73]
  • On two occasions, Osmund Kettleblack is mistakenly identified as "Oswald Kettleblack".[74][75]
  • In Chapter 27, Daenerys III, it's stated Rakharo put an arrow through Grazdan mo Ullhor's mouth to kill him. However, it's Aggo in Path of the Dragon. The latter should be correct, since Aggo used bow, while Rakharo used arakh. Moreover, the word "footfall" is misspelled as "football" in the Bantam Spectra mass market edition from March 2003, published by Bantam Dell, in the following passage: "She woke suddenly in the darkness of her cabin, still flush with triumph. Balerion seemed to wake with her, and she heard the faint creak of wood, water lapping against the hull, a football on the deck above her head."[76]
  • When listing the victims of Sandor Clegane, Tom of Sevenstreams lists "Ser Raymun Darry, Lord Darry, young Lord Darry.",[77] suggesting that Raymun was succeeded by a Lord Darry after he was killed at the Mummer's Ford, and that this Lord Darry was succeeded by young Lyman Darry, until he was killed himself by Gregor Clegane. However, A Game of Thrones specifies that Lyman is Rayman's son,[78] while A Clash of Kings identifies him as "the last of his line".[79]
  • In Chapter 36, Davos IV, Stannis Baratheon says "Yet Ser Axell proposes we swoop down on the homes they left behind, to rape their windows and put their children to the sword. These smallfolk are no traitors...".[80] "[...] rape their windows [...]" should read "[...] rape their widows [...]".
  • The whore Dancy is described to have long, thick red hair in A Clash of Kings,[81] but is suddenly described as having honey-blond hair in A Storm of Swords.[82] When pointed out to him, George R. R. Martin suggested Dancy dyed her hair.[83]
  • In Chapter 62, Jaime VII, Tywin Lannister states "Who did this? If Lady Catelyn thinks—" upon seeing Jaime Lannister's stump.[84] However, Tywin speaks about Catelyn Stark in the present tense, despite knowing that she has already died.[85]

A Storm of Swords Appendix

In the appendix of A Feast for Crows, Eldon is still identified as Stannis's uncle, but is now called Lord Estermont instead of Ser.[44] If it is assumed that the Lord Estermont (never identified by his first name) from A Clash of Kings and A Storm of Swords has died after his last mention, and that Eldon has inherited Estermont since then, this information is consistent with the previous statements. No deaths in House Estermont have been described in the family, however.
However, in A Dance with Dragons, the appendix states that Ser Lomas is Eldon’s second son, instead of his brother. At the same time, Eldon is identified as Stannis's great-uncle instead of grandfather, making him a brother of Stannis's grandfather.[55] According to this scenario, Cassana's brothers are unknown, while it is suggested that the unnamed Lord Estermont - the one whom Stannis calls "grandfather" and complains has bent the knee to Joffrey - was the father of Cassana, and thus grandfather to the Baratheons. Additionally, it suggests that he has recently died, and that the current Lord Eldon was his brother. However, the application A World of Ice and Fire identifies Eldon as Stannis' great-uncle as well, but states he is the same person as the Lord Estermont who had bend the knee to Joffrey.[56][57]
The consistent information in all of these sources is that Ser Aemon is Eldon’s son and heir, and Ser Alyn is Aemon's son, and that Ser Lomas's son is Ser Andrew. Whether Eldon is Cassana's father, brother, or uncle (and thus whether he is Lomas's brother, father, or uncle), is currently unconfirmed.

A Feast for Crows

  • Qyburn's eye color is described as blue in A Feast for Crows,[72] but had been described as brown in A Storm of Swords[71]
  • In Chapter 4, Brienne I, it is stated that "The hedge knights and the septon washed down the meat with ale, […]." However, the two hedge knights were accompanying a merchant, not a septon.
  • Earlier prints of A Feast for Crows state that, upon entering Braavos's lagoon, Arya can see the Purple Harbor (located on the northern side of Braavos) behind the buildings of the Drowned Town in Chapter 6, Arya I. The Drowned Town is located in between the Purple Harbor and Ragman's Harbor (and closer to the latter than to the former[89]). However, the publication of a detailed map of Braavos in 2012,[90] places the entrance to the lagoon at such a location that Arya could not have seen the Purple Harbor in the same line as the Drowned Town. As such, later prints have since the passage to "A harbor was visible off to her right, beyond a sinking point of land where the tops of half-drowned buildings thrust themselves above the water: a tangle of piers and quays crowded with big-bellied whalers out of Ibben, swan ships from the Summer Isles, and more galleys than a girl could count. Another harbor, more distant, was off to her left."[91]
  • In Chapter 17, Cersei IV, the sentence "Merryweather nodded. "Strength at sea is most essential."" has been changed to "Harys Swyft nodded. "Strength at sea is most essential."".[92]
  • In some editions, in Chapter 30, Jaime IV, Jaime Lannister refers to the non-existing King Aenys II,[93] which has been corrected to "King Aerys II in other editions.[94]
  • In Chapter 32, Cersei VII, after discussing how Balon Greyjoy's brother Euron now rules the Iron Islands, Cersei states "Stannis may have had a hand in this. Balon Greyjoy offered my lord father an alliance. Perhaps his son has offered one to Stannis."[95] Of course, as she is referring to Euron, it should be "his brother".
  • Upon meeting Jeyne Westerling in A Feast for Crows, Jaime Lannister notes that she has narrow hips.[63] However, in A Storm of Swords, Catelyn Stark notes that Jeyne is "slender, but with good hips", indicating that "she should have no trouble bearing children, at least".[62] George R. R. Martin has called this mismatch in description a mistake.[96]
  • Eldon Estermont's name is misspelled as "Elden Estermont" in Chapter 40, The Princess in the Tower.[97]
  • In Chapter 14, Brienne III, Brienne states that Renly's army made fun of her at Highgarden, when they started their wager, but in Chapter 20, Brienne IV, Brienne incorrectly states this occurred at Harrenhal,[98] where she had not been yet at that point.
  • In Chapter 35, Samwell IV, Maester Aemon refers to his siblings, saying "Will I talk with Egg again, find Dareon whole and happy, hear my sisters singing to their children?", but Prince Daeron is mistakenly spelled "Dareon".[99]
  • In Chapter 20, The Queenmaker, Arianne Martell is shocked to learn that Tywin Lannister has died, despite having just spoken about Tywin's being dead. In later editions, this passage has been altered.[100]
  • Nymeria Sand is described to be pale skinned in A Feast for Crows,[101] but as olive-skinned in A Dance with Dragons.[102]
  • Septa Helicent is erroneously called "Septa Melicent" in Chapter 43, Cersei X. Her name is correctly stated in the appendices of A Feast for Crows and A Dance with Dragons.

A Feast for Crows Appendix

In the appendix of A Feast for Crows, Eldon is still identified as Stannis's uncle, but is now called Lord Estermont instead of Ser.[44] If it is assumed that the Lord Estermont (never identified by his first name) from A Clash of Kings and A Storm of Swords has died after his last mention, and that Eldon has inherited Estermont since then, this information is consistent with the previous statements. No deaths in House Estermont have been described in the family, however.
However, in A Dance with Dragons, the appendix states that Ser Lomas is Eldon's second son, instead of his brother. At the same time, Eldon is identified as Stannis's great-uncle instead of grandfather, making him a brother of Stannis's grandfather.[55] According to this scenario, Cassana's brothers are unknown, while it is suggested that the unnamed Lord Estermont - the one whom Stannis calls "grandfather" and complains has bent the knee to Joffrey - was the father of Cassana, and thus grandfather to the Baratheons. Additionally, it suggests that he has recently died, and that the current Lord Eldon was his brother. However, the application A World of Ice and Fire identifies Eldon as Stannis' great-uncle as well, but states he is the same person as the Lord Estermont who had bend the knee to Joffrey.[56][104]
The consistent information in all of these sources is that Ser Aemon is Eldon's son and heir, and Ser Alyn is Aemon's son, and that Ser Lomas's son is Ser Andrew. Whether Eldon is Cassana's father, brother, or uncle (and thus whether he is Lomas's brother, father, or uncle), is currently unconfirmed.
  • Daven Lannister is described as "a cousin" to Cersei Lannister, while Damion Lannister, who is related to Cersei in the exact same degree as Daven,[105] is described as "a more distant cousin",[44] possibly explained by the fact that Daven's father was the half-sibling of Cersei's mother Joanna, while Damion's father Damon was a full sibling of Cersei's mother.[106]
  • Septas Moelle, Unella, Helicent and Aglantine are listed as members of the Most Devout, while in the appendix of A Dance with Dragons they are not. Possibly, the appendix of A Feast for Crows is in error. Flagged for correction in future prints.[107]

A Dance with Dragons

  • Barristan Selmy states to Quentyn Martell that the Red Viper "was" his uncle, and that the secret marriage pact was made by "two dead men".[130] Whilst the second statement can be resolved by saying that Barristan meant the Sealord and Darry, the first statement (speaking in past tense) implies Barristan knows about Oberyn's death, while, in fact, nothing suggests that news about the events surrounding the purple wedding have reached Meereen yet, meaning that Barristan cannot know yet that Oberyn has died.
  • Val has been described to have pale grey eyes on two occasions (once in A Dance with Dragons[131] and once in A Storm of Swords[88]), but to have blue eyes once in A Dance with Dragons.[132]
  • Grazhar zo Galare, a child hostage in Meereen, is called "Grazdar" in Chapter 67, The Kingbreaker,[127] as well as in the appendix.[55]

A Dance with Dragons Appendix

In the appendix of A Feast for Crows, Eldon is still identified as Stannis's uncle, but is now called Lord Estermont instead of Ser.[44] If it is assumed that the Lord Estermont (never identified by his first name) from A Clash of Kings and A Storm of Swords has died after his last mention, and that Eldon has inherited Estermont since then, this information is consistent with the previous statements. No deaths in House Estermont have been described in the family, however.
However, in A Dance with Dragons, the appendix states that Ser Lomas is Eldon's second son, instead of his brother. At the same time, Eldon is identified as Stannis's great-uncle instead of grandfather, making him a brother of Stannis's grandfather.[55] According to this scenario, Cassana's brothers are unknown, while it is suggested that the unnamed Lord Estermont - the one whom Stannis calls "grandfather" and complains has bent the knee to Joffrey - was the father of Cassana, and thus grandfather to the Baratheons. Additionally, it suggests that he has recently died, and that the current Lord Eldon was his brother. However, the application A World of Ice and Fire identifies Eldon as Stannis' great-uncle as well, but states he is the same person as the Lord Estermont who had bend the knee to Joffrey.[56][57]
The consistent information in all of these sources is that Ser Aemon is Eldon's son and heir, and Ser Alyn is Aemon's son, and that Ser Lomas's son is Ser Andrew. Whether Eldon is Cassana's father, brother, or uncle (and thus whether he is Lomas's brother, father, or uncle), is currently unconfirmed.

Notes

References

  1. So Spake Martin: TO BE CONTINUED (CHICAGO, IL; MAY 6-8) (MAY 6, 2001)
  2. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 35, Bran V.
  3. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 24, Bran II.
  4. The World of Ice & Fire, The Fall of the Dragons: Robert's Rebellion.
  5. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 29, Arya V.
  6. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 61, The Griffin Reborn.
  7. A Game of Thrones, Prologue.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 21, Tyrion III.
  9. 9.0 9.1 The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aerys II.
  10. The World of Ice & Fire, The Westerlands: House Lannister Under the Dragons.
  11. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 3, Daenerys I.
  12. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 5, Jon I.
  13. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 12, Eddard II.
  14. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 78, Samwell V.
  15. 15.0 15.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 7, Jon I.
  16. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 64, Jon VIII.
  17. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Jeor Mormont.
  18. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 15, Sansa I.
  19. 19.0 19.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 22, Catelyn II.
  20. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 20, Eddard IV.
  21. A Clash of Kings, Prologue.
  22. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 37, Brienne VII.
  23. 23.0 23.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 28, Catelyn V.
  24. 24.0 24.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 32, Arya III.
  25. A Game of Thrones, Map of the South
  26. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 45, Eddard XII.
  27. 27.0 27.1 A Game of Thrones, Chapter 65, Arya V.
  28. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 59, Catelyn IX.
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 29.6 29.7 A Clash of Kings, Appendix.
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 A Game of Thrones, Appendix.
  31. [TWOIAF Spoilers] Inconsistency or Intentional?: (October 28, 2014)
  32. The Princess and the Queen.
  33. The Rogue Prince.
  34. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Viserys I.
  35. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 6, Jon I.
  36. The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aerys I.
  37. 37.0 37.1 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 2, Daenerys I.
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 68, The Dragontamer.
  39. 39.0 39.1 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 11, Daenerys II.
  40. 40.0 40.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 27, Daenerys II.
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 41.4 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 42, Davos II.
  42. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 29, Sansa II.
  43. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 4, Bran I.
  44. 44.00 44.01 44.02 44.03 44.04 44.05 44.06 44.07 44.08 44.09 44.10 A Feast for Crows, Appendix.
  45. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 37, Bran V.
  46. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 21, Bran III.
  47. 47.0 47.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 50, Theon IV.
  48. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 69, Bran VII.
  49. Google Books A Clash of Kings (first edition)
  50. 50.0 50.1 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 13, Jon II.
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 51.3 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 10, Davos I.
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 52.3 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 42, Daenerys IV.
  53. 53.0 53.1 53.2 53.3 53.4 53.5 53.6 53.7 53.8 53.9 A Storm of Swords, Appendix.
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 54.3 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 24, Cersei V.
  55. 55.00 55.01 55.02 55.03 55.04 55.05 55.06 55.07 55.08 55.09 55.10 55.11 55.12 55.13 A Dance with Dragons, Appendix.
  56. 56.0 56.1 56.2 56.3 George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Estermont.
  57. 57.0 57.1 57.2 "the present Lord Estermont—Stannis's great-uncle—bends the knee to King's Landing after the Battle of the Blackwater. Prince Doran Martell dispatches Sylva Santagar, the heir to Spottswood, to wed the widowed Estermont after her part in Princess Arianne's failed plot to crown Myrcella Baratheon is discovered." Citation from Estermont entry in A World of Ice and Fire
  58. 58.0 58.1 Atlas of Ice and Fire: The maps of A Song of Ice and Fire: A Storm of Swords
  59. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 8, Daenerys I.
  60. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 67, Tyrion XV.
  61. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 4, Tyrion I.
  62. 62.0 62.1 62.2 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 14, Catelyn II.
  63. 63.0 63.1 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 44, Jaime VII.
  64. So Spake Martin: Union Square Signing (July 14, 2011)
  65. George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Eleyna Westerling.
  66. 66.0 66.1 66.2 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 49, Catelyn VI.
  67. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 35, Catelyn IV.
  68. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 39, Arya VII.
  69. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 43, Arya VIII.
  70. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 22, Arya II.
  71. 71.0 71.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 31, Jaime IV.
  72. 72.0 72.1 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 3, Cersei I.
  73. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 44, Jaime VI.
  74. 74.0 74.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 67, Jaime VIII.
  75. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 70, Tyrion X.
  76. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 27, Daenerys III.
  77. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 34, Arya VI.
  78. A Game of Thrones, Chapter 71, Catelyn XI.
  79. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 7, Catelyn I.
  80. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 36, Davos IV.
  81. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 29, Tyrion VII.
  82. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 38, Tyrion V.
  83. So Spake Martin: Some Continuity Oddities (February 12, 2001)
  84. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 62, Jaime VII.
  85. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 53, Tyrion VI.
  86. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 32, Tyrion IV.
  87. 87.0 87.1 87.2 A Clash of Kings, Chapter 43, Jon V.
  88. 88.0 88.1 A Storm of Swords, Chapter 73, Jon X.
  89. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 34, Cat Of The Canals.
  90. The Lands of Ice and Fire, Braavos.
  91. Reddit | (Spoilers Main) An Errata of Ice and Fire: list of fixed/confirmed/probable errors: Kindle Errata (November 8, 2017)
  92. The ASOIAF wiki thread: (November 20, 2017)
  93. Science Fiction & Fantasy Stack Exchange: Who Was Aenys II Targaryen?
  94. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 30, Jaime IV.
  95. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 32, Cersei VII.
  96. So Spake Martin: Union Square Signing (July 14, 2011)
  97. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 40, Princess In The Tower.
  98. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 20, Brienne IV.
  99. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 35, Samwell IV.
  100. Mistakes/Contradicions in the books: The dead lion (November 30, 2015)
  101. 101.0 101.1 A Feast for Crows, Chapter 2, The Captain Of Guards.
  102. 102.0 102.1 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 38, The Watcher.
  103. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 60, Tyrion VIII.
  104. "the present Lord Estermont—Stannis's great-uncle—bends the knee to King's Landing after the Battle of the Blackwater. Prince Doran Martell dispatches Sylva Santagar, the heir to Spottswood, to wed the widowed Estermont after her part in Princess Arianne's failed plot to crown Myrcella Baratheon is discovered." Citation from Estermont entry in A World of Ice and Fire
  105. The World of Ice & Fire, Appendix: Lannister Lineage.
  106. [TWOIAF Spoilers] Inconsistency or Intentional?: Lannister relations (November 29, 2014)
  107. The asoiaf wiki thread: Most Devout (August 2, 2018)
  108. 108.0 108.1 108.2 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 29, Davos IV.
  109. 109.0 109.1 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 32, Reek III.
  110. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 4, Bran I.
  111. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 34, Bran III.
  112. 112.0 112.1 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 26, The Wayward Bride.
  113. 113.0 113.1 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 42, The King's Prize.
  114. The World of Ice & Fire, The Iron Islands: Driftwood Crowns.
  115. The ASOIAF wiki thread: Urrathon Goodbrother (November 20, 2017)
  116. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 28, Jon VI.
  117. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 41, The Turncloak.
  118. 118.0 118.1 118.2 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 44, Jon IX.
  119. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 20, Reek II.
  120. 120.0 120.1 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 31, Melisandre I.
  121. 121.0 121.1 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 49, Jon X.
  122. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 69, Jon XIII.
  123. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 16, Bran II.
  124. A Storm of Swords, Chapter 45, Catelyn V.
  125. A Feast for Crows, Chapter 11, The Kraken's Daughter.
  126. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 50, Daenerys VIII.
  127. 127.0 127.1 127.2 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 67, The Kingbreaker.
  128. Fire & Blood, Birth, Death, and Betrayal Under King Jaehaerys I.
  129. FIRE AND BLOOD Volume 1: The First Daenerys (July 22, 2018)
  130. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 59, The Discarded Knight.
  131. A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 10, Jon III.
  132. 132.0 132.1 A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 53, Jon XI.
  133. A Clash of Kings, Chapter 49, Tyrion XI.
  134. The ASOIAF wiki thread: Lord of Storm's End