The Titan of Braavos, by zippo514
|Location||Free Cities, Essos|
|Government||Sealord of Braavos|
|Population||"tens of thousands"|
|Founded||between ~400 BC and 1436 BC[N 1]|
Titan of Braavos, Drowned Town, |
House of Black and White,
Purple Harbor, Ragman's Harbor
Temple of the Moonsingers,
Patternmaker's Maze, Stones of the Silent God, sweetwater river
|Organizations||Faceless Men, Iron Bank, Moonsingers|
Braavos is the wealthiest and likely the most powerful of the Free Cities. It is located in the Great Lagoon on the northwestern end of Essos, where the narrow sea and the Shivering Sea meet. Braavos is also known as Braavos of the Hundred Isles and the Secret City, a name also attributed to the city Nefer, the last remaining city of N'ghai. Braavos is sometimes referred to as the "bastard daughter of Valyria".
- 1 City
- 2 History
- 3 Recent Events
- 4 Chapters that take place at Braavos
- 5 Quotes
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
Braavos sprawls across a hundred islands in a vast lagoon known as the Great Lagoon, found where the Shivering Sea and the narrow sea come together. The Volantenes are fond of boasting that the hundred isles of Braavos can be dropped and drowned in their own harbor at the mouth of the Rhoyne.
The nearby mainland is mostly marshland, whilst the seaward sides of Braavos are protected by tall, mountainous islands which form a semi-circle around the city, such as Sellagoro's Shield. Firewood is brought in by barge, while pines on the islands surrounding the city are left to act as windbreaks to protect the harbors, and are illegal to cut down.
To enter the Great Lagoon, one must pass beneath the Titan of Braavos, a stone fortress in the shape of a huge warrior. The Titan roars every dawn and every sunset, and appears to roar every hour as well, as well as when a ship is approaching. Its roar can be heard across the city, faint, but capable of waking the sleeping city. Just beyond the Titan is located the Arsenal, a vast shipyard where a warship can be built in a day and which is warned by the Titan.
In autumn, Braavos generally knows three types of weather: fog, rain, and freezing rain. However, there are also days that are clear, crisp, and bright. Close to winter, the canals can have ice on them.
There is a stretch of land to the south claimed by Braavos, the Braavosian Coastland. The western coast of Lorath Bay is also under Braavosi control. The Braavosi fleets dominate the seas northwest of Essos, protected by the warlords belonging to the Sealord.
Braavos is comprised of a hundred islands linked together by small stone bridges spanning the many canals throughout the city. The houses in the humbler regions are tightly packed together, even over the canals. One of the bigger canals is the Canal of Heroes, located closest to the Titan of Braavos, the Chequy Port, and the Arsenal. Multiple bridges cross the Canal of Heroes, and along both sides are rows of statues of deceased Sealords. The canal leads directly to the center of the city, where the Isle of the Gods is located. The Green Canal leads from the Palace of Truth to the east side of the lagoon, and the Black Canal can be crossed when traveling to the Ragman's Harbor.
Also of note is the Long Canal, the broadest of the major waterways, leading from the center of the city to the south of the lagoon, where a fishmarket is located. The First Law of Braavos has been engraved in stone on an arch spanning this canal. Along the Long Canal, the Palace of Truth can be found, as well as the tall square towers of the Prestayns to the west and the Antaryons to the east. South of these towers, the large grey aqueduct of the sweetwater river crosses the Long Canal, after the Silty Town is passed on the east side of the canal. Here, the houses are smaller, and less grand.
There are no trees to be found within the city (except in the courts and gardens of the mighty) making Braavos a flat city of stone architecture and granite monuments. The streets are lined with houses made of grey stone, built so close that they lean upon one another. Some houses are built above waterways. They are usually slim buildings with peaked tile roofs, raised four to five stories tall. Braavos has no walls. The islands like Sellagoro's Shield surrounding Braavos are covered with soldier pines and black spruce, which act as windbreaks to protect the harbor. It is illegal to cut these trees down. Because of this, and the lack of wood in the remainder of the city, the price of firewood, which has to be brought in by barge, is high.
As the water from the lagoon is brackish and briny and the canal water is not drinkable without first boiling it, the Braavosi have build the sweetwater river to supply themselves with clean water. A grey stone roadway supported by three tiers of arches traveling from the south, looming above the canals and houses, it brings fresh water from the mainland across the mudflats and the briny shallows. Rich men pipe it directly into their homes, while commoners fill buckets at public fountains. The sweetwater river ends at the Moon Pool.
The Drowned Town is the eldest part of the city. It is located in an area in the north-west of the city, directly north of the Ragman's Harbor, where the town has fallen into the lagoon and only the domes and towers of the old buildings are visible above the surface of the water. In the higher part of the half-submerged buildings, some of the poorer people still live. The Spotted Cellar is located near the gates to the Drowned Town. There, eel fights are held. East of the Drowned Town, the Gate can be found.
Scattered throughout the city are small wharves and landings for fishermen and ferries. Some of the wharves are located below the Drowned Town. Further, the city is served by three main harbors: the Chequy Port, located directly behind the Arsenal, where ships arriving in Braavos have to submit to inspection by the Sealord's customs officers upon arrival in the city; the Purple Harbor, located in the north of the city beneath the towers and domes of the Sealord's Palace, a harbor for Braavosi ships only; and the Ragman's Harbor, also called the Outer Harbor, located in the west of the city, where all foreign ships are allowed to dock. Ragman's is poorer, rougher, dirtier, and noisier than the Purple Harbor.
All gods are honored in Braavos, and therefore, there are many temples and shrines to be found in the city. Most of the temples are located on the Isle of the Gods in the center of the city. Amongst them is the Temple of the Moonsingers, who led the original Braavosi refugees to the islands. Theirs is the biggest temple, built of white marble capped with a silvered dome, milk glass windows showing all the phases of the moon, and a pair of marble maidens flanks its gates. Other temples of note are the temple of the Father of Waters, which is rebuilt whenever he takes a new bride, the Temple of the Lord of Light, and the Sept-Beyond-the-Sea, where only Westerosi come to pray. Homage is done to the Many-Faced God at the House of Black and White, the home of the secretive Faceless Men.
Other sites include the shrine of the Weeping Lady of Lys, the Gardens of Gelenei, the wooden hall of the Lord of Harmony, the house of the Great Shepherd, a three-turreted tower honoring Trios, the Stones of the Silent God, the Patternmaker's Maze, the temple of Aquan the Red Bull, and twin temples honoring Semosh and Selloso, and the temple of the Cult of Starry Wisdom. Even gods that have no more followers are honored in a temple called the Holy Refuge or, colloquially, the Warren.
The best inns, alehouses and brothels lie near the Purple Harbor or the Moon Pool. Bravos fight at night at the latter. Healers for hire are found at the House of the Red Hands. The Blue Lantern and the Dome, two mummers' playhouses, are located near the Purple Harbor. Near Ragman's Harbor, one can find the Inn of the Green Eel, the Black Bargeman, Moroggo's, the Foghouse the Outcast Inn, the House of Seven Lamps, the Satin Palace, the Sailmender and the Cattery, the Happy Port, across from the Mummer's Ship, Pynto's, and beneath the second arch of Nabbo's Bridge lies a winesink, a small, cramped, dirty establishment with barely enough space to fit ten people.
By and large, Braavosi are a kind people, great lovers of song. Wealthy Braavosi dress in charcoal grey, purple, blues so dark that are almost black, and blacks as dark as moonlight. Sword-wielding bravos, in contrast, dress in flamboyant colors. Keyholders of the Iron Bank wear drab coats of brown and grey. Instead of traveling by horse, the Braavosi use boats. The Braavosi tongue is a bastard version of High Valyrian, and the trade tongue is also spoken among the wharves, docks, and sailor's taverns. The Braavosi calendar is different from that of Westeros.
Braavos is renowned worldwide for its courtesans. Every courtesan has her own barge and servants to work them. Songs are sung about them, and they are showered with gifts from goldsmiths and craftsmen beg for their custom. Additionally, pugnacious bravos fill the city, frequently dueling to display their skill. Visibly wearing a sword at night means that you can be challenged to a fight, but the bravos do not bother anyone who does not wear a sword. Bravos are known to kill each other in the name of courtesans, and some take it as a challenge when another claims that another woman than the Nightingale is the most beautiful woman in the world. The Black Pearl is considered by some to be the most famous courtesan.
Braavosi culture has created a unique form of sword fighting, the water dance. The style is a refined form of fencing in which the practitioner stands sideways and wields a slender blade. The greatest of the bravos call themselves water dancers, and they always duel at night. They take their name from the custom of dueling on the Moon Pool, near the Sealord's Palace.
The ruler of the city is the Sealord, who lives in the Sealord's Palace in the northeast of the city. Instead of hereditary succession, the Sealord, currently Ferrego Antaryon, is chosen by Braavosi magisters and keyholders through a convoluted process, and he serves for life. The selection of his successor can be highly contested and can resort to violence. The Sealord's personal guard is commanded by the First Sword of Braavos. The exact position of the Third Sword is not known. The city watch also patrol the city.
Instead of making farces, Braavosi mummers perform plays of written stories. Braavosi mummers can be found at such playhouses as the Ship, the Gate, the Blue Lantern, and the Dome. Only in Braavos may mummers openly mock authorities such as the Sealord or portray them in humiliating acts without persecution or punishment.
The anniversary of the Uncloaking is celebrated annually. The masked feasts last for ten days, and culminate in the midnight of the tenth day, when the Titan roars and all of the celebrants remove their masks at the same time.
Braavos is the wealthiest of the Free Cities, in part due to the wealth and influence of the Iron Bank, they are rivalled in power by Volantis only. The Iron Bank lends money to foreign nations, including the Seven Kingdoms. Braavosi coins are square and made from iron.
During the years when Braavos was as of yet undiscovered, the city prospered. The Braavosi discovered a sea snail similar to those that could be found at Tyrosh, and whose dyes had made the city famous. The snail found by the Braavosi yielded dark purple dye, which the Braavosi used to color the sails of the ships the founders had stolen from the Valyrians. They paint their hulls purple too. At first, Braavos began to trade with Ib, and later the Seven Kingdoms.
Braavos has a seafaring trade culture. Much of the city's early wealth came from the brackish waters of the lagoon. These waters yielded oysters, eels, crabs, crawfish, clams, rays, and many sorts of fish. Braavosi ships paint their hulls purple and their merchant ships sail to many distant lands and bring their trade and wealth back home. One hears of purple sails as far away as Asshai and the islands of the Jade Sea. In the present, Braavos is one of the greatest ports of the world, where all but slavers are allowed to dock. Even ships from Qarth and the Summer Isles come to Braavos to trade.
Unlike the other Free Cities, Braavos was never part of the Valyrian Freehold. The youngest of these cities, Braavos was founded by escaped slaves, fleeing the grasp of the Freehold. The slaves rebelled on their way from Valyria to a new colony in Sothoryos, took control of the ships, and turned north instead of south, travelling as far as they could. According to the histories of Braavos, it was a group of slave women from the lands of Jogos Nhai, the moonsingers, who predicted where shelter could be found. Thus, the slaves travelled to the distant lagoon, hidden away from sight of the dragonlords by the wall of hills covered with pine trees and the fog covering the lagoon. The founders of Braavos risked their lives for freedom, and swore a vow that no one in their city would ever be a slave, thrall, or bondsman. This vow became the First Law of Braavos, and is engraved on the arch spanning the Long Canal.
Some of the fugitives who helped found Braavos hid their valuables in an abandoned iron mine, and the chambers of the mine filled as the city grew. Richer Braavosi began lending their wealth, and thus began the famous Iron Bank of Braavos. The secretive Faceless Men are also connected with Braavos, but the order of assassins are rumored to be even older than the city.
The exact founding date of Braavos is unknown,[N 1] and the existence of the city was kept secret for a century. While Maester Yandel states that Sealord Uthero Zalyne had sent forth his ships to every corner of the world in order to proclaim the existence and location of Braavos during the Uncloaking (or Unmasking) of Uthero at the 111th festival celebrating the city's founding, the city's location remained hidden for another two centuries. Settlements were paid to the descendants of the former masters of the escaped slaves to compensate for the ships that had been stolen, though the Braavosi refused to pay for the value of the slaves.
After the Doom
During the Century of Blood following the Doom of Valyria, Volantis attempted to take control of Valyria's daughters. The Volantenes managed to take control over Myr and Lys, but when they attempted to take Tyrosh they met with resistance. In the rebellion against Volantis, the Sealord of Braavos sent a hundred warships to the aid of Lys.
During Aegon's Conquest, a dozen Braavosi warships helped the Kingdom of Mountain and Vale in battle against the Targaryens in the Gullet. During the Sistermen's Rebellion after the Conquest, the north hired a Braavosi fleet to transport Ser Warrick Manderly's host to the Three Sisters. Queen Marla Sunderland was deposed when the fleet came into sight, and her brother Steffon yielded the islands peacefully.
In 49 AC, the Sealord of Braavos sent his son to attend the Golden Wedding of the Queen Regent, Alyssa Velaryon, and the Hand of the King, Lord Rogar Baratheon. The next year, Rego Draz, the master of coin, took out a loan at several banks, including the Iron Bank of Braavos. Queen Alysanne Targaryen brought a company of mummers from Braavos to entertain the court of King Jaehaerys I Targaryen.
In 54 AC, Lady Elissa Farman traveled to Braavos with three dragon eggs she had stolen from House Targaryen on Dragonstone. By the time she arrived, she had taken on the name "Alys Westhill". Under this alias, she secured an audience with the Sealord, who bought the dragon eggs from her. She used the gold she received in return for the construction of her Sun Chaser, built by the Braavosi shipwrights. The next year, the night before Alys set sail from Braavos with her new ship, the Sealord summoned her to his palace and warned her to leave Braavos, so the Braavosi would not become involved in another struggle with Valyrians.
In King's Landing in 56 AC, King Jaehaerys asked the Iron Bank's envoy if the bank had financed the construction of Sun Chaser or had knowledge of the dragon eggs, but the envoy denied all. In 57 AC, Septon Barth traveled to Braavos to speak with the Sealord about the three dragon eggs. The Sealord refused to admit he had them in his possession, and was amused by Jaehaerys's veiled threat on dragons. After threatening to employ the Faceless Men to assassinate "a well-chosen few" in King's Landing, the Sealord suggested a trade to which Barth eventually consented. Claiming that the eggs were only "pretty stones" until they hatched, the Sealord convinced the Iron Bank to cancel the Iron Throne's large debts. According to Archmaester Gyldayn, upon learning of Barth's visit, Jaehaerys reluctantly agreed to the deal, as long as the eggs remained unhatched.
Viserys and the Dance
During the reign of King Viserys I Targaryen, Lady Laena Velaryon was betrothed to the son of the Sealord of Braavos. The Sealord died before the marriage could take place, however, and his son had proven to be a wastrel and fool, who spent all of his father's wealth and remained on Driftmark permanently. Laena's father, Lord Corlys Velaryon, repeatedly postponed the wedding, as he did not want it to continue, yet saw no way to gracefully rid himself of the man. Thus, they were betrothed for a decade, until Prince Daemon Targaryen in 115 AC spoke privately with Corlys about a marriage to Laena, provoked her betrothed until he demanded single combat, and then killed the Braavosi man.
During the Dance of the Dragons, Ser Tyland Lannister entrusted one fourth of the Crown's gold to the Iron Bank of Braavos, to keep it out of the hands of Queen Rhaenyra Targaryen. After the Storming of the Dragonpit, Rhaenyra sailed from Duskendale to Dragonstone on a Braavosi ship, Violande. Close to war's end, Lady Jeyne Arryn sent envoys to Braavos to hire ships so she could bring her army to King's Landing from Gulltown in the Vale of Arryn. The Braavosi eventually landed Lord Leowyn Corbray at Duskendale and Ser Corwyn Corbray at Maidenpool.
Daughters' War and the Lysene Spring
When the Triarchy collapsed into the Daughters' War, Braavos joined an alliance with Pentos and Lorath against the feuding cities of Lys, Myr, and Tyrosh. Braavos suffered from Winter Fever in 133 AC. Although Lorath eventually left the alliance, Pentoshi sellswords gained most of the Stepstones and Braavosi ships controlled the nearby sea.
Lord Unwin Peake, the Hand of the King to Aegon III Targaryen, sent Ser Gedmund Peake with the royal fleet to expel Racallio Ryndoon from the remaining Stepstones and establish a Westerosi presence on the islands. At Tarth, however, Gedmund paused after learning that the Sealord of Braavos had allied with Racallio and the Archon of Tyrosh to jointly rule the Stepstones. While Gedmund was waiting at Tarth for Unwin's instructions, Lord Alyn Velaryon led his own fleets south and surprised the Braavosi ships in the Stepstones. The sinking of Grand Defiance, the pride of the Sealord's fleet, during Lord Alyn's attack earned him the nickname of Alyn Oakenfist. Lord Velaryon returned to King's Landing as a hero, but his independent action outraged the King's Hand.
Lord Manfryd Mooton led a diplomatic mission to Braavos to prevent war between the Free City and the Iron Throne, as well as return a captured elephant to the Sealord's menagerie. After displaying the mighty Arsenal to Manfryd, the Sealord agreed to dissolve the alliance with Tyrosh and Racallio in return for a large indemnity. Lord Follard became infatuated with a courtesan, Ser Herman Rollingford was killed by a dueling bravo, and Ser Denys Harte allegedly hired the Faceless Men to assassinate a rival in King's Landing. Mushroom refused the Sealord's offer to remain in the city.
The Daughters' War eventually ended with the Disputed Lands divided between Lys, Myr, and Tyrosh, and most of the Stepstones controlled by Dorne. Braavosi ships frequented King's Landing during the Lysene Spring. The sudden deaths of Lysandro and Drazenko Rogare were widely believed to have been at the hands of Faceless Men, with the Iron Bank considered as one of many possible employers. When House Rogare collapsed, Moredo Rogare fled the Vale of Arryn for Braavos. After receiving gold from the Iron Bank, Moredo hired mercenaries in Tyrosh for an attack on Lys.
Over the past two centuries, Braavos has fought six wars against Pentos concerning the practice of slavery and the lands located in between the two cities. Four of these wars were won by Braavos. The last war ended in 209 AC, after Nevio Narratys, Prince of Pentos, convinced the magisters of Pentos to sue for peace after winning a rare victory. In the peace accords, Pentos was forced by Braavos to make several concessions, including the termination of slavery in Pentos and their withdrawal from the slave trade.
After Princess Naerys Targaryen almost died in labor in 161 AC, her brother and husband, Prince Aegon Targaryen was sent on a diplomatic mission to Braavos. There he met Bellegere Otherys the daughter of a Sealord's son and a princess from the Summer Isles, with whom he started an affair that would last for a decade and yield three children. Bellegere was called the Black Pearl of Braavos, and her daughter Bellenora became the first courtesan by that name; her descendants have been Black Pearls until the present.
In 276 AC, King Aerys II Targaryen announced he was going to "bring the Titan to its knees" after a dispute with the Iron Bank. However, Tywin Lannister, the Hand of the King, settled the dispute by repaying the loans made by Aerys's father, King Jaehaerys II, with his own money. After Robert's Rebellion, the last two surviving children of Aerys, Prince Viserys and Princess Daenerys, were taken to Braavos by Ser Willem Darry and four other loyal men, where they lived in a house with a red door. While they were staying there, Willem signed a secret marriage pact with Oberyn Martell. This betrothed Arianne, the daughter of Doran Martell, Prince of Dorne, to Viserys, in return for Dorne supporting Viserys's claim to the Iron Throne. However, Willem fell ill around 289 AC and died soon after. After his death, servants stole the money remaining to the Targaryens, who were forced to leave the house. Daenerys and Viserys began to wander the Free Cities, although they visited Braavos at least once more during later years.
The great-grandfather of Petyr Baelish was born in Braavos. He came to the Vale as a sellsword in hire of Lord Corbray. His son, upon receiving knighthood, took the Titan of Braavos for his sigil.
Ser Jorah Mormont once visited Braavos with his second wife, Lynesse Hightower. While there, he borrowed heavily from moneylenders from the city. When he was exiled from Westeros several years later, he wanted to return to Braavos, but as per his wife's request of a warmer location, he went to Lys instead, and as a sellsword, fought on the Rhoyne against the Braavosi. Allard Seaworth has a girl in Braavos.
A Game of Thrones
A Clash of Kings
Stannis Baratheon plans to send letters to Braavos and the other Free Cities, announcing his claim to the Iron Throne during the War of the Five Kings, and telling them about Queen Cersei Lannister's infamy.
A moneylender from Braavos arrives at the court of King's Landing, asking to see King Joffrey I Baratheon about payments on some loans. He is sent to Petyr Baelish, the master of coin. In order to get her to Dorne safely, Princess Myrcella Baratheon is to travel from King's Landing to Braavos, and then from Braavos to Dorne.
Arya Stark receives a worn iron coin from Jaqen H'ghar of Lorath. He tells her that, if she would ever wish to find him again, she has to give the coin to any man from Braavos, and say to him the words "valar morghulis".
A Storm of Swords
Tyrion Lannister considers taking his wife, Sansa Stark to go see Braavos. When Sansa hides in the Vale, she pretends to be Alayne Stone, the bastard daughter of Petyr Baelish by a Braavosi gentlewoman, a daughter of a merchant prince. Petyr claims to Sansa that he had found the dwarfs Penny and Oppo in Braavos. However, according to Penny, they had been contacted by Petyr's man in Pentos.
A Feast for Crows
Samwell Tarly is sent to Braavos by Lord Commander Jon Snow, together with Gilly, Mance Rayder's son, Maester Aemon, and Dareon. They sail to Braavos on the Blackbird. They encounter storms on their way, however. Aemon falls ill during the journey, and is weak once they arrive in Braavos. They stay in Braavos for a while, and Dareon decides to desert the Night's Watch, preferring to remain in Braavos instead. After crossing paths with "Cat", Samwell meets Xhondo from the Cinnamon Wind, and manages to get him, Aemon, Gilly, and the babe passage to Oldtown. Arya kills Dareon after learning of his desertion, but she is then blinded when she returns to the House of Black and White.
Cersei Lannister, the regent for King TommenI Baratheon, decides to end all payments to the Iron Bank until the war is over. She also receives a report that her brother Tyrion has been spotted in Braavos, though she does not believe it to be true. The Iron Bank begins to refuse new loans, and starts demanding repayments on their outstanding debts.
A Dance with Dragons
Tycho Nestoris, an emissary from the Iron Bank, arrives at Castle Black, where he agrees upon a loan with Lord Commander Snow. He is later sent on to Stannis Baratheon. Melisandre has a vision of a girl coming to Castle Black; thinking that it will be Arya, Jon considers asking the Iron Bank to settle her with a noble family in Braavos.
Arya begs in Braavos under the name Beth, and she hears rumors that Tormo Fregar will be chosen as the new Sealord if Ferrego Antaryon dies from his illness. After Arya's sight is restored, the Faceless Men disguise her as an ugly girl and have her assassinate an elderly man.
The Winds of Winter
|| Warning |
This information has thus far been released in a sample chapter for The Winds of Winter, and might therefore not be in finalized form. Keep in mind that the content as described below is still subject to change.
Chapters that take place at Braavos
- A Feast for Crows: 6. Arya I
- A Feast for Crows: 22. Arya II
- A Feast for Crows: 26. Samwell III
- A Feast for Crows: 34. Cat of the Canals
- A Dance with Dragons: 45. The Blind Girl
- A Dance with Dragons: 64. The Ugly Little Girl
- The Winds of Winter: Mercy
In Westeros my wit is wasted capering for a king who never smiles, but in Braavos they would love me ... too well, I fear. Every courtesan would want me, and soon or late some bravo would take umbrage at the size of my member and prick me with his little pointy dwarf-skewer.—writings of Mushroom
—thoughts of Arya Stark
Braavos was a city made for secrets, a city of fogs and masks and whispers.—thoughts of Arya Stark
Kindly man: The Nine Free Cities are the daughters of Valyria that was, but Braavos is the bastard child who ran away from home. We are a mongrel folk, the sons of slaves and whores and thieves. Our forebears come from half a hundred lands to this place of refuge, to escape the dragonlords who had enslaved them. Half a hundred gods came with them, but there is one god all of them shared in common.
Arya: Him of Many Faces.
- The exact founding date of Braavos is unknown. However, Braavos is the youngest of the Free Cities (The World of Ice & Fire, The Free Cities: Volantis)(The World of Ice & Fire, The Free Cities: Braavos), meaning it was founded after Lorath, which was founded in 1436 BC (The World of Ice & Fire, The Free Cities: Lorath). Harwyn Hoare visited Braavos in his youth, placing his visit near the start of the Century of Blood (i.e., ~100 BC). As Braavos revealed its location no earlier than three hundred years after its founding (A Feast for Crows, Cat of the Canals), Braavos was founded no later than ~400 BC.
- Fire & Blood, Jaehaerys and Alysanne - Their Triumphs and Tragedies.
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Free Cities: Braavos.
- A Clash of Kings, Chapter 41, Tyrion IX.
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Free Cities.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 22, Arya II.
- The World of Ice & Fire, Ancient History: Valyria's Children.
- The World of Ice & Fire, Beyond the Free Cities: East of Ib.
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Free Cities: Pentos.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 41, Jon V.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 15, Samwell II.
- The Winds of Winter, Chapter , Mercy.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 6, The Merchant's Man.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 26, Samwell III.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 6, Arya I.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 34, Cat Of The Canals.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 45, The Blind Girl.
- The Winds of Winter, Mercy
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 44, Jon IX.
- A Dance with Dragons, Map of the Free Cities
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Free Cities: Lorath.
- The World of Ice & Fire, Beyond the Free Cities: The Shivering Sea.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 64, The Ugly Little Girl.
- The Lands of Ice and Fire, Braavos.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 45, Samwell V.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 32, Tyrion IV.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 11, Daenerys II.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 22, Arya II.
- George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Braavos.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 20, Eddard IV.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 11, Daenerys II.
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Iron Islands: The Black Blood.
- The World of Ice & Fire, Ancient History: The Doom of Valyria.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 14, Tyrion IV.
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Conquest: The Reign of the Dragons.
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Vale.
- Fire & Blood, Reign of the Dragons - The Wars of King Aegon I.
- Fire & Blood, Prince into King - The Ascension of Jaehaerys I.
- Fire & Blood, The Year of the Three Brides - 49 AC.
- Fire & Blood, A Surfeit of Rulers.
- Fire & Blood, A Time of Testing - The Realm Remade.
- Fire & Blood, Birth, Death, and Betrayal Under King Jaehaerys I.
- Fire & Blood, The Heirs of the Dragon - A Question of Succession.
- Fire & Blood, Heirs of the Dragon - A Question of Succession.
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Viserys I.
- Fire & Blood, The Dying of the Dragons - The Blacks and the Greens.
- Fire & Blood, The Dying of the Dragons - Rhaenyra Overthrown.
- Fire & Blood, The Dying of the Dragon - The Sad, Short Reign of Aegon II.
- Fire & Blood, Aftermath - The Hour of the Wolf.
- Fire & Blood, Under the Regents - The Hooded Hand.
- Fire & Blood, Under the Regents - War and Peace and Cattle Shows.
- Fire & Blood, The Lysene Spring and the End of Regency.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 1, Tyrion I.
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aegon IV.
- Not a Blog: Wars, Woes, Work, June 10, 2015
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Baelor I.
- The World of Ice & Fire, The Targaryen Kings: Aerys II.
- A Game of Thrones, Chapter 3, Daenerys I.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 43, Daenerys VII.
- George R. R. Martin's A World of Ice and Fire, Daenerys Targaryen.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 8, Daenerys I.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 23, Daenerys II.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 68, Sansa VI.
- A Clash of Kings, Chapter 12, Daenerys I.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 27, Tyrion VII.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 5, Tyrion II.
- A Clash of Kings, Chapter 10, Davos I.
- A Clash of Kings, Chapter 17, Tyrion IV.
- A Clash of Kings, Chapter 47, Arya IX.
- A Clash of Kings, Chapter 48, Daenerys IV.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 57, Daenerys V.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 60, Tyrion VIII.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 61, Sansa V.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 33, Tyrion VIII.
- A Storm of Swords, Chapter 64, Jon VIII.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 35, Samwell IV.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 17, Cersei IV.
- A Feast for Crows, Chapter 36, Cersei VIII.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 29, Davos IV.
- A Dance with Dragons, Chapter 62, The Sacrifice.
- A Dance with Dragons, Epilogue.
- So Spake Martin: Yet More Questions, July 22, 2001